Show Summary Details

Page of

Printed from American National Biography. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a single article for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 26 February 2021

Heilbrun, Carolyn G.locked

(13 January 1926–09 October 2003)
  • Susan Ware


Heilbrun, Carolyn G. (13 January 1926–09 October 2003), feminist literary critic and popular mystery writer (under the pseudonym Amanda Cross), feminist literary critic and popular mystery writer (under the pseudonym Amanda Cross), was born Carolyn Gold in East Orange, New Jersey, the only child of Archibald Gold and Estelle Roemer Gold. Her Latvian-born father immigrated to the United States as a child; her American-born mother was the daughter of Austrian immigrants. Both families were Jewish, although her parents actively distanced themselves from those roots. Archibald Gold crafted a successful career as an accountant and broker but suffered reverses during the early years of the Great Depression. In 1932 the family moved to New York City, where he rebuilt his career. Even as a child Carolyn was something of a loner.After graduating from the private Birch Wathen School in 1943, she enrolled at Wellesley College, where she majored in English and philosophy. As a Jew, she felt like an outsider on campus, plus her intellectual aspirations put her at odds (at least in her mind) with the other Wellesley students more interested in marriage than careers. And yet her sophomore year, at age nineteen, she married James Heilbrun, a Harvard student who was about to be posted overseas. He served in the armed forces her junior year, and her senior year they lived off campus while he pursued a master's degree at Harvard. She graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1947....

You do not currently have access to this article


Please login to access the full content.


Access to the full content requires a subscription