- Hans L. Trefousse
Schurz, Carl (02 March 1829–14 May 1906), Civil War general, U.S. senator, and secretary of the interior, was born in Liblar near Cologne, the son of Christian Schurz, a teacher and small businessman, and Marianne Jüssen. He was educated at the Marcellen Gymnasium in Cologne and at the University of Bonn, where he was strongly influenced by Professor Gottfried Kinkel, a convinced German nationalist and democrat. During the Revolution of 1848 Schurz joined Kinkel in agitating for radical democratic and republican reforms. His participation in an ill-conceived attempt to seize the arsenal at Siegburg caused him to flee to the Palatinate, where he joined the revolutionary forces. Commissioned a lieutenant, he took part in engagements at Übstadt and Bruchsal and was almost captured by the Prussians in besieged Rastatt. In danger of punishment for treason, he managed to escape through a sewer and reach safety in France....