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James Craik. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B04995).


Craik, James (1730–06 February 1814), physician and military surgeon, was born on his father’s estate near Dumfries, Scotland, the son of Robert Craik, a member of the British Parliament; the name of his mother is unknown. Little information about his early life is available. Although his parents were apparently not married, he was acknowledged by his father, who assumed responsibility for his education. After studying medicine at the University of Edinburgh, he joined the British army as a surgeon. Shortly after being sent to the West Indies, he resigned his position and sailed for Virginia in 1751. After a short period in the Norfolk area, he moved to Winchester, Virginia....


Jones, Calvin (02 April 1775–20 September 1846), physician and militia leader, was born near Sheffield, Massachusetts, the son of Ebenezer Jones, a soldier of the Army of the Revolution, and Susannah Blackman. Little is known of his early schooling, though he probably acquired learning in local schools and by reading avidly throughout his life. To learn medicine, he apprenticed with a local Berkshire physician and was certified to practice by the United Medical Society shortly after his seventeenth birthday. By 1793 he was practicing medicine in Freehold, New York, and the following year published ...


Wright, Joseph Jefferson Burr (27 April 1801–14 May 1878), military physician, was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania; his parents’ names are unknown. He received an A.B. from Washington (Pa.) College in 1821 and attended the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine from 1825 to 1826. He married Eliza Jones, with whom he had three children; the year of the marriage is unknown....