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James Craik. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B04995).


Craik, James (1730–06 February 1814), physician and military surgeon, was born on his father’s estate near Dumfries, Scotland, the son of Robert Craik, a member of the British Parliament; the name of his mother is unknown. Little information about his early life is available. Although his parents were apparently not married, he was acknowledged by his father, who assumed responsibility for his education. After studying medicine at the University of Edinburgh, he joined the British army as a surgeon. Shortly after being sent to the West Indies, he resigned his position and sailed for Virginia in 1751. After a short period in the Norfolk area, he moved to Winchester, Virginia....


Mann, James (22 July 1759–07 November 1832), physician and military surgeon, was born in Wrentham, Massachusetts, the son of David Mann and Anna (maiden name unknown). After graduating from Harvard in 1776, Mann studied medicine with Dr. Samuel Danforth of Boston. He joined the Continental army on 1 July 1779 as a surgeon of the 4th Massachusetts Regiment. In 1781 he was captured and imprisoned on Long Island by the British for two months. The following year, having resigned from military service because of ill health, he opened a private practice in Wrentham. In 1788 he married Martha Tyler, with whom he had five children. At this time he began writing the first of the many scientific articles he was to publish in the course of his lifetime. His contributions to medical literature during this period twice brought him Harvard’s Boylston prize, in 1803 for a paper on children’s diseases and in 1806 for an article on dysentery. He became a member of the Massachusetts Medical Society in 1803....