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John P. Gray. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B013530).


Gray, John Purdue (06 August 1825–29 November 1886), physician, alienist, and asylum superintendent, was born in Half Moon, Pennsylvania, the son of Peter D. Gray, a Methodist minister and farmer, and Elizabeth Purdue. He received his early education at Bellefonte Academy and Dickinson College, from which he graduated with an A.M. in 1846. He studied medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, graduating in 1849 and immediately becoming resident physician at Blockley Hospital in Philadelphia....


Sidis, Boris (12 October 1867–24 October 1923), psychologist, physician, and pioneer in the field of psychopathology, was born in Kiev, Russia, the son of Moses Sidis, a well-to-do merchant and intellectual, and Mary Marmor, both Ukranian Jews. Under his father’s tutelage, Boris showed early intellectual promise, developing an interest in poetry, languages, and history. During the czarist pogroms against the Jews in the 1880s, he was arrested for teaching peasants how to read and write. He spent two years in solitary confinement and withstood beating and torture before his father was able to secure his freedom. He immediately escaped from Russia and went, nearly penniless, to New York in 1887. While tutoring Russian immigrants, he met Sarah Mandelbaum. In 1891 Sidis went on to Boston, where Mandelbaum soon joined him. She enrolled at the Boston University Medical School, and he continued to work and study. At her urging, he qualified to enter Harvard as a special student in 1892, and he received an A.B. in 1894. Also in 1894 he married Mandelbaum; they had two children....


Tildon, Toussaint Tourgee (15 April 1893–22 July 1964), physician and psychiatrist, was born in Waxahachie, Texas, the son of John Wesley Tildon, a physician, and Margaret Hilburn. Tildon received a bachelor’s degree from Lincoln University in Pennsylvania in 1912. He then studied pre-law at Harvard for one year before entering medical school at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee. He transferred to Harvard, earning an M.D. in 1923 and specializing in psychiatry and neurology....