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Martin, Maria (6 July 1796–27 Dec. 1863), natural history artist, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the youngest of four daughters born to John Jacob Martin, the son of an itinerant lay Lutheran pastor whose patriotism during the Revolutionary War had earned the regard of Carolinians, and Rebecca Martin, a twice-widowed successful businesswoman. Income from her mother’s dressmaking shop and the respectability associated with her grandfather’s reputation gave Maria Martin a privileged childhood. Additionally, because Lutheranism required a literate laity, Maria and her sisters were well-educated....

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Pinney, Eunice Griswold (09 February 1770–12 May 1849), amateur watercolor painter, was born in Simsbury, Connecticut, the daughter of Elisha Griswold and Eunice Viets, farmers. The Viets and Griswold families were prosperous as well as influential in the affairs of the Episcopal church in Simsbury, so Eunice and her siblings enjoyed the advantages of wealth and education. Eunice is said to have been “a woman of uncommonly extensive reading.” ...