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Ballou, Hosea (1771-1852), theologian and clergyman  

Olive Hoogenboom

Ballou, Hosea (30 April 1771–07 June 1852), theologian and clergyman, was born in Richmond, New Hampshire, the son of Maturin Ballou, a farmer and unpaid Baptist minister, and Lydia Harris, who came from a Rhode Island Quaker family and died when her son was two years old. Growing up in extreme poverty, Ballou had less than three years of formal schooling. A few months before his nineteenth birthday, he came forward in a revival meeting and joined his father’s church. But before the year was over Ballou’s interest in religion had led him to become a Universalist. Moving in with an older brother who was already a Universalist minister, Ballou prepared himself to teach and preach by attending first a community school and then a nearby academy. Despite the fact that his friends, after hearing his first sermon, delivered in 1791, doubted his “talent for such labor,” Ballou preached wherever he found an open door. The next year he determined to make the ministry his career even though he had to support himself by teaching. In 1793 he went to the first of the nearly fifty New England Universalist conventions he would attend, and by the next year’s session he had so impressed his colleagues that they spontaneously ordained him. In 1796 Ballou moved to Dana, Massachusetts, and in September of that year he married Ruth Washburn; they had nine children....


Parham, Charles Fox (1873-1929), evangelist and Pentecostal theologian  

Henry Warner Bowden

Parham, Charles Fox (04 June 1873–29 January 1929), evangelist and Pentecostal theologian, was born near Muscatine, Iowa, the son of Ann Maria Eckel and William M. Parham, farmers. In 1878 the family moved to more prosperous fields in Cheney, Kansas, but Charles was afflicted with poor health: probably encephalitis in childhood and definitely rheumatic fever that recurred intermittently throughout his lifetime. In a reversal of the usual sequence, he felt called to preach before he had a conversion experience. While studying at Southwest Kansas College (1890–1893) he reaffirmed his commitment to preaching, finally leaving school to become a Methodist supply pastor before completing his degree. By 1895 Parham refused to accept the ecclesiastical supervision common to Methodist bishops and launched an independent ministry. The following year he married Sarah Eleanor Thistlethwaite; the couple had six children....


Stone, Barton Warren (24 December 1772–09 November 1844), evangelist, educator, and speculative theologian  

Philip K. Goff

Stone, Barton Warren (24 December 1772–09 November 1844), evangelist, educator, and speculative theologian, was born near Port Tobacco, Maryland, the son of John Stone and Mary Warren, farmers. Reared in Pittsylvania County, Virginia, he moved in 1790 to North Carolina to study law at Guilford Academy. His career plans changed when he was converted to an aggressive form of evangelical Protestantism under the influence of ...


Cover Stone, Barton Warren (24 December 1772–09 November 1844)
Barton W. Stone. Clockwise from far right: Stone, Alexander Campbell, Walter Scott, and Thomas Campbell. Engraving by John Chester Buttre, from Pioneers in the Great Religious Reformation of the Nineteenth Century, 1885. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (Card no. 98508288).


Wells, Seth Youngs (1767-1847), Shaker theologian, author, and educator  

Suzanne R. Thurman

Wells, Seth Youngs (19 August 1767–30 October 1847), Shaker theologian, author, and educator, was born in Southold, New York, the son of Thomas Wells and Abigail Youngs. Little is known of Wells’s early life. He attended high school, where he received a classical education, and studied bookkeeping at the Clinton Academy in East Hampton, New York, in 1788. He taught and served as a principal in the public schools of Albany, New York, and also taught at the Hudson Academy....


Zinzendorf, Nikolaus Ludwig von (1700-1760), Lutheran theologian and count  

Craig D. Atwood

Zinzendorf, Nikolaus Ludwig von (26 May 1700–09 May 1760), Lutheran theologian and count, was born in Dresden, Saxony, the son of George Ludwig, Count von Zinzendorf, a privy counselor of the Saxon court, and Charlotte Justine von Gersdorf. Zinzendorf’s father died when Zinzendorf was only six weeks old, and in 1704 his mother married a Prussian field marshal. She left Zinzendorf in the care of her mother, the baroness von Gersdorf, in her castle, “Gross-Hennersdorf.” Philipp Jakob Spener, who in 1675 had inaugurated the Pietist movement with the publication of ...