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Charles E. Bedaux. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-107447).


Bedaux, Charles Eugene (10 October 1886–18 February 1944), scientific manager, entrepreneur, and fascist collaborator, was born in Charenton-le-Pont, France, a suburb of Paris, the son of Charles Emile Bedaux, a railroad engineer, and Marie Eulalie, a dressmaker. Bedaux spent his first twenty years on the streets of Paris, doing odd jobs and usually avoiding school. He attended the Lycée Louis LeGrand in Paris but did not receive a regular degree. In 1906 he left Paris to seek his fortune across the Atlantic. In the United States Bedaux worked as a dishwasher, an insurance salesman, and a sandhog with the crews building the Hudson River tunnels. He also had a stint at the New Jersey Worsted Mills in Hoboken. He became a naturalized citizen in 1908....


Spengler, Joseph John (19 November 1902–02 January 1991), economist and demographer, was born near Piqua, Ohio, the son of Joseph Otto Spengler and Philomena Schlosser, probably farmers. In 1927 he married Dorothy Marie Kress; they had no children. He received the A.B. in 1926, the M.A. in 1929, and the Ph.D. in economics in 1930, all from Ohio State University. His mentor at Ohio State was the well-known demographer Albert B. Wolfe....


Sumner, William Graham (30 October 1840–12 April 1910), economist and sociologist, was born in Paterson, New Jersey, the son of Thomas Sumner, an English artisan who emigrated from Lancashire in 1836, and Sarah Graham. When Sumner was eight, his mother died, leaving him and two siblings in the care of a stepmother whose preference for parsimony over affection left a legacy in William’s renowned personal austerity. Although not formally educated, his father championed free trade and temperance but was otherwise contemptuous of what his son later termed the “gospel of gush.” After a lifetime of seeking his fortune without success, Thomas Sumner died in 1881 almost as poor as when he arrived, a model for the “forgotten man” of one of Sumner’s best-known essays....