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Bronson, Ruth Muskrat (3 Oct. 1897–12 June 1982), Cherokee activist, educator, and federal official, was born Ruth Muskrat, the fourth of seven children, on a small farm in the Delaware District of the Cherokee Nation near what is now Grove, Oklahoma. Her mother, Ida Lenora Kelly, was the child of English-Irish immigrants who entered the Cherokee Nation on work permits from Missouri. Her father, James Ezekiel Muskrat, was a descendant of both Old Settler Cherokees and those forcibly removed from their homes in Georgia two decades later during what has come to be known as the Trail of Tears. A language speaker and conservative traditionalist, James was a committed Cherokee nationalist in a time when Cherokee sovereignty was increasingly under assault by industrial interests, territorial advocates, and proponents of allotment, assimilation, and Oklahoma statehood. With the passage of the Curtis Act in ...

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Johnson, Grace Allen (9 Sept. 1871–17 Jan. 1952), suffragist, educator, and peace activist, was born Grace Allen Fitch in Maples, Indiana, the daughter of Appleton Howe Fitch, a Civil War Union Army veteran and manufacturer, and Elizabeth Harriet Bennett, a former schoolteacher. Grace lived in Maples and then Kalamazoo, Michigan, until she was fourteen, when her father became manager of his mother’s farm in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. She graduated from Hopkinton High School in ...