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Garry, Spokan (1811–14 January 1892), teacher and tribal leader, was born in a village near where Latah Creek flows into the Spokane River in what is now the state of Washington, the son of Chief Illim-Spokanee, head of the Middle Spokans. His mother’s name is unknown. The three branches of the Spokans—Lower, Middle, and Upper—numbered about 1,000, all of whom looked up to Illim-Spokanee. Garry’s boyhood name is forgotten. At age fourteen he was chosen as one of a group to be educated at the Hudson’s Bay Company mission school on the Red River near what is now Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Nicholas Garry was deputy governor of the company. The Spokan chief’s son was given his name. The group, mostly sons of chiefs, were subject to the same Spartan discipline that prevailed in English public schools. They were instructed in the reading and writing of English and the religion of the Church of England. Also included was training in agriculture, for the missionaries believed that only by developing a settled agricultural life could the Indians compete with white people. The boys were above average in intelligence, and once the language barrier was overcome, the missionaries had little trouble....


Other Day, John (1819?–30 October 1869), Christian farmer chief of the Wahpeton Dakotas, who became famous for leading white settlers to safety during the Dakota War of 1862, was born in southern Minnesota, the son of Scarlet Bird (Zitkadanduta), a war shaman. His mother’s name is not known. His Indian name was Anpetutokeca; he was also known as Good Sounding Voice, or Hotonhowaste....


Tenskwatawa. Hand-colored lithograph by F. W. Greenough, 1838. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZC4-3419).


Tenskwatawa (1775– November 1836), Shawnee religious and political leader, known as the Shawnee Prophet, was born at Old Piqua, a Shawnee village on the Mad River in Ohio, the son of Puckeshinwa, a Shawnee war chief, and Methoataske, a Creek woman. He was originally given the name Lalawethika (The Noisemaker) and was one of a set of triplets, the youngest siblings in a large family numbering at least six older brothers and sisters. One of the triplets died in infancy. The other, Kumskaukau, also a male, lived into the War of 1812 period....