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Garcés, Francisco Tomás Hermenegildo (12 April 1738–19 July 1781), Franciscan missionary, explorer, and martyr, was born in Morata del Conde (Aragón), Spain, the son of Juan Garcés and Antonia Maestro, occupations unknown. Educated by his uncle Moisés Garcés, the local parish priest, in 1753 he entered the Franciscan order of the province of Aragón and studied theology and philosophy at the monastery of Calatayud, where he was ordained a priest in 1762. The following year at Madrid, Garcés presented himself to the commissary of the college of Santa Cruz of Querétaro, Fray Juan Crisóstomo Gil, and volunteered as a missionary in New Spain. In 1766 Garcés reached the college, where he held the post of confessor....


Isaac Jogues. From a painting signed "Danton 1904." Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-100823).


Jogues, Isaac (10 January 1607–18 October 1646), Jesuit missionary and martyr, was born in Orléans, France, the son of Laurent Jogues, a merchant, and Françoise de Saint-Mesmin. Isaac pursued a thoroughly Jesuit education. He entered the Jesuit college at Orléans in 1617, began his novitiate at Rouen under Father Louis Lalemant, the novice-master, in 1624, and studied philosophy from 1626 at the Collège de La Flèche, where the charismatic missionary to Port Royal (in present-day Nova Scotia), Énemond Massé, had been stationed. Jogues began theological studies at Clermont in 1634, but he curtailed them, taking ordination in January 1636 and embarking later that year for the Canadian missions. Jogues was accompanied on his voyage across the Atlantic by a substantial flotilla, including several Jesuits and ...