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Walter C. Alvarez. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B029601).


Alvarez, Walter Clement (22 July 1884–16 June 1978), physician, medical researcher, and medical columnist, was born in San Francisco, California, the son of Luis Fernandez Alvarez, a physician, and Clementina Schuetze. When Alvarez was three, his family moved to Hawaii, where his father was a government physician in two isolated Oahu villages. Alvarez was eleven when his father established a Honolulu hospital for lepers and attempted to develop a serum to combat the disease. While assisting his father, Alvarez resolved to become a physician....


Warren, Edward (22 January 1828–16 September 1893), surgeon, medical educator, and journalist, was born in Tyrrell County, North Carolina, the son of William Christian Warren, a physician, and Harriet Alexander. Between 1843 and 1845 he attended the Fairfax Institute in Virginia. He then served a medical apprenticeship under his father. Following this, he enrolled in the medical department of the University of Virginia, where after a year of concentrated study he received his M.D. degree in 1850. Although Virginia’s academic standards were high, its medical department, as was the case with most rural medical schools of the day, was deficient in practical anatomy and clinical instruction. To remedy this, the following year Warren took a second M.D. degree at the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, then the center of medical education in the United States. While at Jefferson he developed the idea that morphia would act most efficiently and effectively if administered under the skin, using a lancet and Anel’s syringe. Subsequently, he claimed to have conceived the idea of hypodermic medication....