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Fanning, Edmund (24 April 1739–28 February 1818), royal official and Loyalist military leader, was born in Southold, Long Island, the son of James Fanning, a British navy captain and later a Suffolk County innkeeper, and Hannah Smith. It was an ambitious move upward when Edmund went to Yale College on a Berkeley scholarship, graduating in 1757, and three years later met the requirements for the M.A. at Harvard University, although the degree was not granted until 1764....

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Hutchinson, Thomas (09 September 1711–03 June 1780), colonial historian, royal official, and Loyalist refugee, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Colonel Thomas Hutchinson and Sarah Foster, both children of Boston merchants. He grew up in one of the finest mansions in Boston, plain in style but filled with busts of classical and British figures and pictures of historic events such as the destruction of the Spanish Armada. Preferring reading history to playing with other children, Thomas became absorbed in the history of England and New England and admired Charles I. He attended North Grammar School and at the age of twelve entered Harvard, where his family’s social standing entitled him to be ranked third in his class. In 1734 he married Margaret Sanford, daughter of a wealthy Rhode Island merchant and governor, and thereupon became linked by family ties and affection to ...

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Ludlow, George Duncan (1734–13 November 1808), judge and Loyalist official, was born in Queens County, Long Island, New York, the son of Gabriel Ludlow, a wealthy merchant, and Frances Duncan. The family was well established in the province, with strong ties to the Anglican church and to the powerful De Lancey political faction. George Ludlow’s younger brother was ...

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Randolph, John (1727–31 January 1784), king's attorney general for Virginia and Loyalist, king’s attorney general for Virginia and Loyalist, was born at the Randolph family estate, “Tazewell Hall,” in Williamsburg, Virginia, the son of Sir John Randolph and Susanna Beverley. He grew up in fortunate circumstances. His father, the only Virginian to be knighted during the colonial era, was the leading man in the politics of Virginia until his death, serving as king’s attorney, Speaker of the House of Burgesses, and representative of Virginia in London. Whether by accident or by design, both John Randolph and his older brother ...

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Richardson, Ebenezer (1718–?), Loyalist, customs official, and informer, was born in Woburn, Massachusetts. Almost nothing is known of his parentage or early life, but he moved to Boston, Massachusetts, by the beginning of the 1750s. He earned the dubious distinction of breaking out of jail in both Boston (1751) and Cambridge, Massachusetts (1753), in the latter case his offense being the procurement of stolen tools for his brother. Around 1754 he also became involved in a scandal in which he accused the Reverend Edward Johnson of Woburn of fathering a bastard child by his wife’s sister. It was later suggested that the child was Richardson’s own....

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Wormeley, Ralph ( April 1744–19 January 1806), colonial councillor, Loyalist, and legislator, was born at “Lansdowne,” Urbanna, Middlesex County, Virginia, the son of Ralph Wormeley, a planter, and Jane Bowles. Though identified throughout his life with “Rosegill,” the Wormeley seat on the Rappahannock River, he was not born at the ancestral home, which was still occupied by his paternal grandmother. The Wormeley family, established in Virginia since 1635, was one of the few families in the colony that had maintained its wealth and aristocratic standing from the period prior to 1650 until after the American Revolution. Wormeley was the fifth of his name to be a member of the ruling order in Virginia....