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Goldman, Eric (17 June 1915–19 February 1989), historian, author, educator, and presidential adviser, was born Eric Frederick Goldman in Washington, D.C., the son of Harry Goldman, a fruit and vegetable store owner and cabdriver, and Bessie Chapman. Goldman’s parents divorced when he was very young, and he was raised mainly by his father. He attended public school in Baltimore but held out no hope of ever attending college because of his father’s poor financial situation. On graduation from high school in 1931, however, he was awarded a scholarship and decided to enroll at Johns Hopkins University. Goldman moved on to graduate work at Johns Hopkins without ever completing the undergraduate program. He received an M.A. in American history in 1935 and a Ph.D. in the same subject in 1938, earning the latter degree at twenty-two years of age....


Holborn, Hajo Ludwig Rudolph (18 May 1902–20 June 1969), historian and government adviser, was born in Berlin, the son of Ludwig Rudolph Holborn, a physicist and director of an imperial research institute, and Helene Bussmann. Enjoying a rapid rise in the academic world, he earned his doctorate in 1924 under Friedrich Meinecke in Berlin, began lecturing at the University of Heidelberg in 1926, and in 1931 received the first permanent appointment to the Carnegie Chair for History and International Relations at the Deutsche Hochschule für Politik in Berlin, where he also lectured at the university....


Schlesinger, Arthur Meier, Jr. (15 October 1917–28 February 2007), historian, intellectual, presidential adviser, was born in Columbus, Ohio, to Arthur Meier Schlesinger, Sr., an influential historian who inspired his young son, and Elizabeth Bancroft. The younger Arthur's middle name was Bancroft at first, but when he was old enough, he changed his middle name to match his revered father's. After teaching at Ohio State University and the University of Iowa, the older Schlesinger moved to Harvard in 1924. The younger Arthur attended the local schools in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and later Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire, graduating at the age of fifteen. Because his parents thought he was too young for college, they took him on a long trip around the world—what he called his “great adventure.” When the family returned to Boston, Arthur, Jr., entered Harvard College in 1934, at the age of seventeen. He graduated in 1938. His undergraduate thesis, ...


Arthur Meier Schlesinger, Jr. Digital pigment print, 1978 (printed 2009), by Bernard Schwartz. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of the Bernard L. Schwartz Foundation.