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Gilchrist, William Wallace (08 January 1846–20 December 1916), composer and conductor, was born in Jersey City, New Jersey, the son of William Gilchrist, a businessman, and Redelia Ann Cox. In 1855 his family moved to Philadelphia, where he lived most of his life. During the Civil War Gilchrist was too young for the draft, but he enlisted in the army at age seventeen. Returning to Philadelphia two years later, he decided on music as his vocation after exploring business, photography, and law. For three years he studied voice, organ, and composition with Hugh Clarke, who later became a professor of music at the University of Pennsylvania. This was his only formal musical education....

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Hall Johnson Photograph by Carl Van Vechten, 1947. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-108272).

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Johnson, Hall (12 March 1888–30 April 1970), composer, arranger, and choral conductor, was born Francis Hall Johnson in Athens, Georgia, the son of William Decker Johnson, an AME minister, and Alice (maiden name unknown). Music was an important part of Hall Johnson’s childhood. He heard the singing of his grandmother and other former slaves as they sang the old spirituals in his father’s Methodist church. This grounding in the original performance of Negro spirituals was to represent a significant influence on his later life. Johnson, exhibiting an early interest in music, received solfeggio lessons from his father and piano lessons from an older sister. As a teenager he developed an interest in the violin and taught himself to play....

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Luboff, Norman (14 May 1917–22 September 1987), choral director and arranger, was born Norman Kador Luboff in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Julius Luboff, an insurance salesperson, and Rose (maiden name unknown). Even though his parents discouraged him from entering the field of music, Norman was happily surrounded with music throughout his childhood and adolescence, enjoying his family’s amateur vocal harmonizing and his membership in his high school’s orchestra and choir. Foreshadowing events to come, he even organized a small choir of his teenage peers whom he taught by rote to sing in four-part harmony. However, he did not consider music as a profession until 1935, after entering Chicago’s Central Y.M.C.A. College (later renamed Roosevelt University), from which he received a bachelor of arts degree in music in 1939. During these formative years Luboff’s influential teachers included Richard Bloch, Alexander Vivaiski, Norman Lockwood, and ...

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Ritter, Frédéric Louis (22 June 1834–06 July 1891), composer, conductor, and author, was born in Strasbourg, France. His father (full name unknown) was of Spanish extraction, the family name having originally been Caballero. (His mother’s identity also is unknown.) Ritter studied music as a youth with Hans Schletterer and Franz Hauser and then went to Paris to study with J. Georges Kastner, his cousin. In 1852 Ritter was appointed professor of music at the Protestant seminary of Fénéstrange in Lorraine....

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Schreiber, Frederick Charles (13 January 1895–15 January 1985), organist, conductor, and teacher, was born in Vienna, Austria, the son of Charles Robert Darwin Schreiber, a doctor, and Anna (maiden name unknown). Both parents were musicians who delighted in playing piano, and they provided countless hours of musical enrichment for Frederick and his sister Ella. In this way Schreiber learned to appreciate the classical repertoire. Schreiber began formal study of the piano at age eight and wrote his first composition when he was just ten years old. He attended the Humanistic High School in Vienna, the Vienna University, and the State Academy of Music, studying composition, conducting, piano, and violoncello....

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Tuckey, William (1709?–14 September 1781), singer, composer, and teacher, was born in Somersetshire, England, and arrived in America in late 1752 or early 1753. His parents’ names are unknown. All that is known of his life prior to his appointment as clerk of Trinity Church in New York on 31 January 1753 must be deduced from incidental references in Trinity’s vestry records, public notices of his subsequent activities, and the inscription on his tombstone in the yard of Christ Church, Philadelphia. According to that inscription, he died “in the 73d year of his age”; his birthdate may thus be placed between 15 September 1708 and 13 September 1709. In a notice in the 11 March 1771 issue of the ...