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Landsteiner, Karl (14 June 1868–26 June 1943), immunologist and pathologist, was born in Vienna, Austria, the son of Leopold Landsteiner, a journalist and newspaper publisher, and Fanny Hess. He received an M.D. from the University of Vienna in 1891, then spent three years studying chemistry at the Universities of Zurich, Würzburg, and Munich. In 1894 he returned to the University of Vienna and for two years worked as an assistant in the Second Medical University Clinic and the First Surgical University Clinic. In 1896 he became an assistant at the University of Vienna’s Institute of Hygiene and began experimenting with the effects of immune blood serum on bacteria cultures. His interest in the nascent field of immunology led him to transfer two years later to the Institute of Pathological Anatomy because its director encouraged him to pursue his work in immunology....