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Levine, Lena (17 May 1903–09 January 1965), gynecologist, psychiatrist, and pioneer of the birth control movement, was born in Brooklyn, New York, the daughter of Morris H. Levine, a clothing manufacturer, and Sophie Levine. Her parents, Jewish émigrés from Russia, had come to the United States in the 1890s. Her father’s business did well enough that the family lived relatively comfortably compared to their neighbors. Levine received a bachelor’s degree from Hunter College in 1923, and then went on to earn her M.D. from University and Bellevue Hospital Medical College in 1927. Two years later she married Louis Ferber, another medical student, but decided to retain her maiden name. They both did their residencies at Brooklyn Jewish Hospital....

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Ray, Isaac (16 January 1807–31 March 1881), psychiatrist, was born in Beverly, Massachusetts, the son of Captain Isaac Rea and his second wife, the widow Lydia Symonds. The spelling of the family name was changed sometime between 1807 and the death of Captain Ray in 1814....

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Sackler, Arthur Mitchell (22 August 1913–26 May 1987), research psychiatrist, art collector, and philanthropist, was born in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Isaac Sackler and Sophie (maiden name unknown). In the 1930s Sackler simultaneously studied medicine at New York University (NYU) and art history at NYU and the Cooper Union Art Institute. To fund his medical studies, he joined the William Douglas MacAdams medical advertising agency. Sackler earned his B.S. from NYU in 1933 and his M.D. from NYU in 1937. In 1935 he married Else Jorgensen; they had two children....

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Salmon, Thomas William (06 January 1876–13 August 1927), psychiatrist and reformer, was born in Lansingburgh (now Troy), New York, the son of Thomas Henry Salmon, a physician, and Annie E. Frost. Salmon, whose father had immigrated from England in 1860, went to the local public school and graduated from the Lansingburgh Academy in 1894. He taught school at Pleasant Valley, New York, until 1895 and then attended Albany Medical College for the next four years. In 1899 he received an M.D. from Albany Medical College and, that same year, married Helen Potter Ashley; they had six children....