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Biggs, Hermann Michael (29 September 1859–28 June 1923), pathologist, bacteriologist, physician, and public health official, was born in Trumansburg, New York, the son of Joseph Hunt Biggs and Melissa Pratt. Dr. Biggs married Frances M. Richardson, of Hornellsville, New York, in 1898; they had two children. Biggs received his primary education in Ithaca, New York, and matriculated into Cornell University, where he received the bachelor of arts degree in 1882. From Cornell Biggs went on to medical school at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, where he received his M.D. the following year. He spent the next eighteen months (1882–1883) in the postgraduate course at Bellevue, where he served as a rotating intern and resident physician. Upon completion of this course, Biggs traveled to Europe and spent the next two years (1883–1885) studying bacteriology in Berlin and Griefswald. When he returned to New York City in 1886, Biggs was made director of the newly opened Carnegie Bacteriology Laboratory of the Bellevue Hospital. His rise in academic rank was meteoric; appointed a lecturer in pathology in 1886, Biggs was made a full professor of pathology in 1889, professor of materia medica (pharmacology) in 1892, professor of therapeutics in 1898, and professor of medicine in 1912....

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Delafield, Francis (03 August 1841–17 July 1915), physician, was born in New York City, the son of Edward Delafield, a physician, and Julia Floyd. After graduating from Yale University (A.B., 1860), he entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York and was awarded the M.D. in 1863. He then went to Europe to continue his studies and was strongly influenced by the theories of Rudolf Virchow, author of ...

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Gerhard, William Wood (23 July 1809–28 April 1872), physician and pathologist, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of William Gerhard, a hatter, and Sarah Wood. His parents were Moravians. After graduation from Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in 1826, Gerhard received his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1830. His thesis on endermic medication, based on nearly 200 cases that he had observed as a resident pupil in the Philadelphia Almshouse, appeared in the ...

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Arthur Emanuel Hertzler Courtesy of the Clendening History of Medicine Library, University of Kansas Medical Center.

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Hertzler, Arthur Emanuel (25 July 1870–12 September 1946), physician, surgeon, and pathologist, was born in the Mennonite community of West Point, Iowa, the son of Daniel Hertzler, a farmer, and Hannah Krehbiel, the first Mennonite child born west of the Mississippi River. Hertzler’s parents grew to hold divergent religious beliefs, separating their family, according to Hertzler, “as completely broken as it would have been by divorce,” and leaving Hertzler a lifelong skeptic about organized religion....

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Mallory, Frank Burr (12 November 1862–27 September 1941), physician, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, the son of George Burr Mallory, a sailor and ship’s captain, and Anna Faragher. He attended Harvard College (A.B., 1886; A.M., 1890) and the Harvard Medical School (M.D., 1890). In 1891 he joined the pathological laboratory at the Boston City Hospital as assistant to ...

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George R. Minot. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B019419).

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Minot, George Richards (02 December 1885–25 February 1950), physician and pathologist, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of James Jackson Minot, a physician, and Elizabeth Frances Whitney. His parents, believing Minot frail during his childhood, took him to Florida or California to spend winters. There Minot developed a lifelong interest in natural history; while still in his teens he published two papers, “The Chrysalis of Malitaea Gabbi” (1902) and “The Tussock Moth Peril” (1903). In 1904 Minot entered Harvard, after finishing his secondary education at a Boston private school. He received his B.A. in 1908; in 1912 he received his M.D. from the Harvard Medical School....