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Miles, Manly (20 July 1826–15 February 1898), physician, biologist, and professor of agriculture, was born in Homer, New York, the son of Manly Miles and Mary Cushman, farmers. When he was eleven, his family moved to a farm in eastern Michigan, near Flint. Trained in farm labor and deeply interested in science, especially chemistry and biology, in which he was ambitiously self-educated, he earned an M.D. from Chicago’s Rush Medical College in 1850. He married Mary E. Dodge in 1851. After practicing medicine in Flint for nine years, he became zoologist for Michigan’s new state geological survey. As its physician and zoologist he gathered collections of mollusca, birds, reptiles, and other animals, some of which he shared with scholars, including ...

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Robertson, Oswald Hope (02 June 1886–23 March 1966), physician and biologist, was born in Woolwich, England, the son of Theodore Robertson, a former artillery officer, and Kathleen Conlan. In early 1888 the family moved to the San Joaquin Valley in California, but Robertson would not become a naturalized U.S. citizen until 1920. He completed high school in San Francisco and had planned to study biology, but a visit with an American medical student studying in Germany caused him to change his mind. He enrolled in premedical studies at the University of California, where he completed both a B.S. and an M.S. before transferring into the penultimate year of the medical program at Harvard University. He graduated with an M.D. in 1913, winning a Dalton scholarship for postgraduate study of pernicious anemia as part of his internship at Massachusetts General Hospital. There he was influenced by hematologist Roger I. Lee, who had studied transfusion and blood-clotting. He stayed a second year as a trainee in pathology, before accepting a position in 1915 as assistant bacteriologist and pathologist at the Rockefeller Institute in New York City. With the future Nobel laureate ...

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Thomas, Lewis (25 November 1913–03 December 1993), physician, biologist, administrator, and writer, was born in Flushing, New York, the son of Joseph Simon Thomas, M.D., and Grace Peck, a nurse. In his memoir, The Youngest Science: Notes of a Medicine Watcher (1983), Thomas describes accompanying his father on house calls as a boy, a habit that proved decisive in his choice of career. After going to school in Flushing and completing his preparatory education at the McBurney School in Manhattan (1927–1929), Thomas attended Princeton University (1929–1933) and Harvard Medical School, graduating cum laude in 1937. He held a variety of posts before his commission as a lieutenant in the U.S. Navy. On 1 January 1941 he married Beryl Dawson in New York; the couple had three daughters. During World War II Thomas was assigned to a Naval Medical Research Unit at the Rockefeller Institute in New York; he was also stationed in Guam and Okinawa (1944–1945), where he conducted research in virology....