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Allen, Edgar (02 May 1892–03 March 1943), endocrinologist and physiologist, was born in Canyon City, Colorado, the son of Asa Allen, a physician and Edith Day. In 1900 the family relocated to Providence, Rhode Island, where Allen grew up. After the death of his father, when Allen was in his early teens, his mother supported the family by working as a librarian and with the help of her children, who held a succession of odd jobs. Allen supported himself through Brown University by waiting on tables, tending furnaces, and teaching swimming among other things. Upon graduating in 1915, he entered the graduate school, from which he received an M.A. in biology with special emphasis on embryology in 1916, after which he continued on for his Ph.D. World War I intervened, however, and he left for France, where he served with a mobile unit of the Sanitary Corps. Allen married Marion Robins Pfeiffer, then a student at Pembroke, the women’s college of Brown, in 1918; the couple had two daughters....

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Astwood, Edwin Bennett (29 December 1909–17 February 1976), physiologist and endocrinologist, was born in Hamilton, Bermuda, the son of Earnest Millard Astwood, a jeweler, watchmaker, and optometrist, and Imogene Doe. Astwood spent his childhood and received his early education in Bermuda, where his family had a longstanding business interest. Because of his family’s religious ties, Astwood was sent to Washington Missionary College in Ohio. Deciding to study medicine after receiving his college degree in 1929, Astwood attended the Medical College of Evangelists at Loma Linda University in Loma Linda, California....

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Evans, Herbert McLean (23 September 1882–06 March 1971), medical researcher, was born in Modesto, California, the son of Clayburn Wayne Evans, a physician, and Bessie McLean. In the public high school Evans enjoyed literature and history as well as science but was directed into medicine by his parents. At the University of California at Berkeley he took courses in science after the two-year premedical course, and in his senior year he enjoyed a field trip to Idaho with paleontologist ...

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Hoskins, Roy Graham (03 July 1880–05 November 1964), biomedical investigator, was born in Nevinville, Iowa, the son of William Henry Hoskins, a tradesman, and Sarah Graham. As a child, Roy moved by covered wagon with his family to Broken Bow, Nebraska, where newly turned sod became the family’s shelter and livelihood. Parental teaching, extensive Bible reading, and “The Youth’s Companion” were his sole sources of enlightenment. When Roy was seven the Hoskinses moved to Mullen, Nebraska, but failing family fortunes prompted another move to Fairfield, Nebraska—over land that was unsurveyed and populated with grouse, prairie chickens, and pronghorns, much to Roy’s fascination. In Mullens, Hoskins was gainfully employed collecting buffalo bones to be used as boneblack in making sugar. In Fairfield his father returned to carpentry and Hoskins got his first experience with formal education. The outcome was a straight-A record throughout five years of high school, which in 1900 enabled him to matriculate at the University of Kansas. There Hoskins had the good fortune to be associated with seven of this country’s most prominent naturalists in both the plant and animal sciences. He also took part in a variety of extracurricular activities, winning the pentathlon and singing with many different groups. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa with an A.B. in 1905....