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Filene, Edward Albert (03 September 1860–26 September 1937), merchant, reformer, and philanthropist, was born in Salem, Massachusetts, the son of William Filene, a merchant, and Clara Ballin. His father emigrated from Poznan, Prussia (now Poland), in 1848 and, upon arriving in the United States, worked as a tailor in Boston. In 1856 he set up a small retail shop for women’s goods in Salem, Massachusetts. Encouraged by the prosperity of the Civil War years, William Filene moved his family and business to New York City in 1863, but the postwar downturn forced him into bankruptcy by 1870. The family retraced their steps and returned to small shopkeeping in industrial Lynn, Massachusetts....