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Ameringer, Oscar (04 August 1870–05 November 1943), humorist and socialist editor, was born in a Swabian village in Germany, the son of August Ameringer, a cabinetmaker. His mother’s maiden name was Hoffman, and she was the previously widowed owner of a twelve-acre farm. Relocated to Laupheim, Ameringer grew up in the relative comfort of the lower middle class, yet he despised the religiosity and anti-Semitism of his Lutheran schooling. An instinctive antimonarchist, storyteller, and musician, he seized his first opportunity, at age sixteen, to flee to the United States. There he would become the “Mark Twain of American socialism,” a famed literary comedian, stage entertainer, and labor and political organizer....

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Harrison, Hubert Henry (27 April 1883–17 December 1927), black intellectual and radical political activist, was born in Concordia, St. Croix, Danish West Indies (now U.S. Virgin Islands), the son of William Adolphus Harrison and Cecilia Elizabeth Haines. Little is known of his father. His mother had at least three other children and, in 1889, married a laborer. Harrison received a primary education in St. Croix. In September 1900, after his mother died, he immigrated to New York City, where he worked low-paying jobs, attended evening high school, did some writing, editing, and lecturing, and read voraciously. In 1907 he obtained postal employment and moved to Harlem. The following year he taught at the White Rose Home, where he was deeply influenced by social worker Frances Reynolds Keyser, a future founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). In 1909 he married Irene Louise Horton, with whom he had five children....

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Wayland, Julius Augustus (26 April 1854–11 November 1912), socialist newspaper publisher, was born in Versailles (pronounced Ver-sāles), Indiana, the son of John Wayland, a grocer, and Micha (maiden name unknown). Four months later a cholera epidemic killed his father. His family had moved from Virginia to Indiana in the late 1840s, and his mother provided for the family by taking in sewing and washing. J. A. (as he was generally known) spent a total of less than two years in school, working at odd jobs to help the family. Frustrated in his attempt to find work as a carpenter, two weeks before his sixteenth birthday he was apprenticed to the printing trade as a “rolling boy” or “printer’s devil” at the local weekly, the ...