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Austin, Harriet N. (1825–1891), hydropathic physician and health and dress reformer, was born in Connecticut but raised in Moravia, New York. Little is known about her parentage or early life. At age twenty-six she enrolled in the first class of the coeducational American Hydropathic Institute operated by ...

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Blackwell, Elizabeth (03 February 1821–31 May 1910), physician, reformer, and medical educator, was born in Bristol, England, daughter of Samuel Blackwell, a prosperous sugar refiner, and Hannah Lane. Her father’s interest in abolitionism and in “perfectionist reform,” the belief that through education and spiritual regeneration human beings could achieve a just society on earth, coupled with a series of financial reversals, prompted a move to the United States in 1832 when Elizabeth was eleven....

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Phelps, Aurora (1839–04 January 1876), land reformer, labor leader, and advocate of women's rights, was born in Cortland, New York, to John and Aurilla Phelps (maiden name unknown). Details of Aurora's early life are difficult to confirm. She grew up in Elmira, New York, where she joined the Baptist church. She and her family took two extended trips to England, the first when she was nine years old and the second at age eighteen. During her second voyage, she married, had a son, and was widowed, but no documentation of either her husband or her child survives. Phelps returned to the United States around 1859 and resumed use of her maiden name. She attended Oberlin College in Ohio, and continued her studies in Galesburg, Illinois....