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Chapman, Sydney (29 January 1888–16 June 1970), geophysicist and applied mathematician, was born in Eccles, Lancashire, near Manchester, England, the son of Joseph Chapman, chief cashier of a textile firm, and Sarah Louisa Gray. Chapman’s early education emphasized mathematics and science. He entered the Royal Technical Institute in Lancashire in 1902. He was awarded a competitive scholarship to study at Manchester University, where he earned a B.Sc. with first class honors in engineering in 1907 and another in mathematics in 1908. At Manchester he studied under the well-known scientists Osborne Reynolds, Horace Lamb, and J. E. Littlewood....

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Forbush, Scott Ellsworth (10 April 1904–04 April 1984), geophysicist and mathematician, was born near Hudson, Ohio, the son of E. A. Forbush, a farmer, and Grace (maiden name unknown), a former schoolteacher.

Forbush graduated second in his class in 1920 from Cleveland’s Western Reserve Academy. He worked as a waiter before entering Case School of Applied Science in Cleveland in 1921. He graduated with a B.S. in physics and mathematics in 1925. He then began graduate studies in physics (optics, electronics, and thermodynamics) at Ohio State University in Columbus, also acting as a teaching assistant in general physics. Disappointed with the curriculum, however, he accepted a position as junior physicist with the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, D.C., in 1926. This, too, failed to satisfy him, and he applied in 1927 for a position with the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. He stayed with the DTM for forty-two years, until his retirement in 1969, except for a few leaves of absence in government and university service....