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Bodley, Rachel Littler (07 December 1831–15 June 1888), botanist, chemist, and educator, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, the daughter of Anthony Prichard Bodley, a carpenter and patternmaker, and Rebecca Wilson Talbott, a teacher. An 1849 graduate in classical studies of Wesleyan Female College in Cincinnati, Rachel Bodley taught there and served as preceptor in higher college studies until 1860, when she decided to pursue her interests in botany and chemistry. She began advanced studies in the natural sciences at the Polytechnic College in Philadelphia in 1860 and returned to Ohio in early 1862 to accept a position as professor of natural sciences at the Cincinnati Female Seminary....

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Bridges, Robert (05 March 1806–20 February 1882), chemist and botanist, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Culpeper Bridges, a merchant, and Sarah Cliffton. He was a student at the University Grammar School in Philadelphia and graduated from Dickinson College in 1824. He then studied medicine in the private medical school of Thomas D. Hewson in Philadelphia. There he became assistant to ...

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Nieuwland, Julius Arthur (14 February 1878–11 June 1936), organic chemist and botanist, was born in Hansbeke, Belgium, the son of Jean Baptiste Nieuwland, a laborer, and Philomena Van Hoecke. In 1880 the family moved to South Bend, Indiana, where Flemish immigrants had established a community. At age fourteen Nieuwland decided to become a priest and entered Holy Cross Seminary at the University of Notre Dame. He received a bachelor’s degree in classical studies from the university in 1899. The Holy Cross order sent him to its college at Catholic University in Washington, D.C., to continue studies for the priesthood and to undertake work in science, his interest in science having become evident at Notre Dame. In 1903 he was ordained as a Holy Cross Father, and in 1904 he earned a doctorate in chemistry with a minor in botany....

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Thurber, George (02 September 1821–02 April 1890), botanist and chemist, was born in Providence, Rhode Island, the son of Jacob Thurber, a businessman, and Alice Ann Martin. From an early age, he was attracted to scientific studies and, for a time, was a student at the Union Classical and Engineering School of Providence, though he did not take a degree. He studied both pharmacy and chemistry and became a lecturer in chemistry at the Franklin Society in Providence. His interest in botany developed through his inquiries into the sources of vegetable drugs. Through correspondence he soon made the acquaintance of such eminent American naturalists as ...