1-11 of 11 results  for:

  • earth science x
Clear all

Article

Boyé, Martin Hans (06 December 1812–05 March 1909), chemist and geologist, was born in Copenhagen, Denmark, the son of Mark Boyé, a chemist and superintendent of the Royal Porcelain Manufactory and of a large pharmaceutical firm. His mother’s name is not known. In 1831 Boyé was admitted to the University of Copenhagen, where he passed the philological and philosophical examinations with distinction. In 1832 he entered the Polytechnic School in Copenhagen, where he studied analytical chemistry and physics under Hans Christian Ørsted, William Christoffer Zeise, and Johan Georg Forchhammer; he graduated with honors in 1835....

Article

Day, David Talbot (10 September 1859–15 April 1925), chemist and geologist, was born in East Rockport (now Lakewood), Ohio, the son of Willard Gibson Day, a Swedenborgian minister, and Caroline Cathcart. His family moved to Baltimore, Maryland, a few years later. There is little record of his early life, but he was an exhibitor at the U.S. Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, at age seventeen. The official catalog of the exposition, however, lists no entry for Day, so the details of his participation are not clear....

Article

Genth, Frederick Augustus (17 May 1820–02 February 1893), chemist and mineralogist, was born Friedrich August Ludwig Karl Wilhelm Genth in Waechtersbach, Hesse-Cassel, Germany, the son of Georg Friedrich Genth, principal forest warden to Prince Issenburg, and Karoline Amalie, Freyin (Baroness) von Swartzenau. Genth attended the Gymnasium in Hanau, then studied at Heidelberg under Leopold Gmelin, at Giessen with Justus von Liebig, Hermann Kopp, and the analytical chemist C. R. Fresenius, finally receiving his Ph.D. in 1845 at Marburg, where he worked with Robert Wilhelm Bunsen. His thesis dealt with recovery of copper metal from copper-bearing schists: he later expanded it and published it in ...

Article

Hunt, Thomas Sterry (05 September 1826–12 February 1892), chemist and geologist, was born in Norwich, Connecticut, the son of Peleg Hunt and Jane Elizabeth Sterry, farmers. His early childhood was spent at Poughkeepsie, New York, but on Peleg’s death in 1838, Jane and her six children returned to Norwich, where Sterry Hunt (as he preferred to be known) received his only formal schooling. Obliged to work from the age of thirteen, Hunt had a succession of jobs in a printing works, an apothecary’s shop, and a bookstore, all the while improving himself by reading and attending popular lectures. He was largely self-taught in science. When the Association of American Naturalists and Geologists held its annual meeting at New Haven in 1845, Hunt reported the event for a New York newspaper, including an interview with the chemist ...

Article

Jackson, Charles Thomas (21 June 1805–28 August 1880), chemist and geologist, was born in Plymouth, Massachusetts, the son of Charles Jackson, a merchant and shipbuilder, and Lucy Cotton. Both of Jackson’s parents died when he was thirteen. In his teens Jackson showed an interest in chemistry and, with his friend the young mineralogist Francis Alger, made two excursions, in the summers of 1827 and 1829, to Nova Scotia, where he carried out mineralogical and geological studies. The result was Jackson’s first publication (with Alger), “A Description of the Mineralogy and Geology of a Portion of Nova Scotia” ( ...

Article

Shepard, Charles Upham (29 June 1804–01 May 1886), mineralogist, educator, chemist, and natural historian, was born in Little Compton, Rhode Island, the son of Mase Shepard, a Congregational minister, and Deborah Haskins. Shepard began collecting rocks and minerals while attending grammar school in Providence, Rhode Island. He entered Brown University in 1820, but his father died during his first year, and his mother then moved with her family to Amherst, Massachusetts, where Shepard entered the sophomore class at the newly founded Amherst College....

Article

Silliman, Benjamin (08 August 1779–24 November 1864), scientist and educator, was born in North Stratford (now Trumbull), Connecticut, the son of Gold Selleck Silliman, a lawyer and brigadier general in the Continental army, and Mary Fish Noyes. Silliman entered Yale College when he was thirteen, graduating in 1796. After spending two years at home and teaching at a private school, he began the study of law and was admitted to the bar in 1802. During this time he was also a tutor at Yale (1799–1802), where his interest in the natural world began. Yale’s president, ...

Article

Smith, John Lawrence (16 or 17 Dec. 1818–12 October 1883), chemist, mineralogist, and physician, was born near Charleston, South Carolina, the son of Benjamin Smith, a wealthy merchant; his mother’s name is unknown. At a very young age, even before he could read, John Lawrence Smith demonstrated precocity in mathematics. After attending private schools and receiving a classical education at the College of Charleston, in 1835 he entered the University of Virginia, where he concentrated on science, mathematics, and engineering. Returning to Charleston in 1837, he worked for one year on a Charleston-to-Cincinnati railroad engineering project before entering the Medical College of Charleston and completing requirements for his M.D. degree in 1840. He studied in Europe for several years with Justus Liebig (who inspired him to focus his research efforts on chemistry), J. B. Dumas, Matthieu Joseph Bonaventure Orfila, and Élie de Beaumont. Also at this time he initiated a lifelong association with ...

Article

Smithson, James (1765–27 June 1829), scientist and philanthropist, was born James Lewis Macie, probably in France, the illegitimate son of Hugh Smithson, later the first Duke of Northumberland, and Elizabeth Hungerford Keate Macie, a wealthy widow from Weston, England. Little is known of Macie's childhood in France. In 1782 he enrolled in Pembroke College, Oxford, where he excelled in chemistry and mineralogy. Two years later, he embarked on his first geological collecting tour, in Scotland and the Hebrides, with a group of distinguished scientists. In 1786 he received an M.A.from Pembroke College and a year later was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, London, its youngest member. He presented his first paper to the society on 7 July 1791, “An Account of Some Chemical Experiments on Tabasheer,” recounting his chemical analyses of this substance found in the hollow of bamboo canes. Thus began a career of scientific research, exacting experimentation, and specimen collecting. In 1800 he was elected to the new Royal Institution of Great Britain, an organization devoted to “diffusing the knowledge and … the application of science to the common purposes of life.”...

Article

Troost, Gerard (15 March 1776–14 August 1850), geologist and chemist, was born in Bois-le-Duc, Netherlands, the son of Everhard Joseph Troost and Anna Cornelia van Haeck. He became a medical doctor through apprenticeship in Leiden and a pharmacist through apprenticeship in Amsterdam, never enrolling in a Dutch college. In the early 1800s he practiced pharmacy in the Netherlands and became well known as a mineral collector. In June 1807 the king of the Netherlands, Louis Napoleon, appointed Troost to create a royal collection of minerals. To perfect his skills, Troost became a pupil of the father of crystallography, the Abbe René Just Haüy, who worked at the Natural History Museum in Paris, where Troost took up residence. For three years he studied and traveled, buying specimens for the royal collection. In early 1810, when the Dutch government was about to fall, Troost assembled letters of introduction from European intellectuals, gathered American mineral specimens that were in Paris for identification, and left for Philadelphia. The move was probably long planned since his younger brother, Benoist, arrived in Philadelphia from Java at the same time....

Article

Washington, Henry Stephens (15 January 1867–07 January 1934), petrologist-analytical chemist, petrologist–analytical chemist, was born in Newark, New Jersey, the son of George Washington and Eleanor Stephens. His family was related to George Washington (1732–1799), and the homestead estate was in Locust, New Jersey. He obtained an A.B. with special honors in natural science from Yale College in 1886. As a graduate assistant in physics, he took courses in mineralogy and petrography and obtained an A.M. in 1888. From 1889 to 1891 he studied at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Greece, where he took part in archaeological excavations, financed in part by his own funds. In the winter of 1891 Washington enrolled at the university in Leipzig, Germany, to study under Professor F. Zirkel, one of the preeminent teachers of petrography. His doctoral dissertation was on the volcanic rocks of Greece, which he arranged to have analyzed chemically, and in 1893 he received the Ph.D. with highest honors....