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Levene, Phoebus Aaron Theodor (25 February 1869–06 September 1940), organic and biochemist, was born Fishel Aaronovitch Levin in Sagor, Russia, the son of Solom Levin, a shirtmaker, and Etta Brick. In 1873 the family moved to St. Petersburg, where in 1886 Levene became one of the few Jewish students admitted to the Imperial Medical Academy. Faced with rising anti-Semitism, the family immigrated to New York City in 1891. Levene returned to St. Petersburg to complete his examinations and received an M.D. in 1891. For the next four years he practiced medicine in the Russian Jewish colony of New York....

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Longsworth, Lewis Gibson (16 November 1904–09 August 1981), physical and biological chemist, was born in Somerset, Kentucky, the son of Lawrence Roscoe and Sarah Elizabeth Nichols. He was educated at Southwestern College, from which he obtained a B.A. in 1925, and at the University of Kansas, which awarded him an M.A. in 1927 and a Ph.D. in 1928. Longsworth’s graduate research, done under the direction of H. P. Cady, was a study of the motion of ions in an electric field. His first publication on that subject, “A Modification of the Moving-boundary Method for the Determination of Transference Numbers,” which appeared in 1929 ( ...

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Osborne, Thomas Burr (05 August 1859–29 January 1929), chemist and biochemist, was born in New Haven, Connecticut, the son of Arthur Dimon Osborne, an attorney and banker, and Frances Louisa Blake. Osborne attended Yale University and received his bachelor’s degree in 1881. A year in Yale’s medical school was not to his liking, so Osborne enrolled in the graduate school to study chemistry in 1882. One year later he was employed as a laboratory assistant in analytical chemistry, a post that enabled him to pursue his own research and publish three papers, the last of which served as his dissertation for the doctorate degree, awarded in 1885 (“The Quantitative Determination of Niobium,” ...

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Pauling, Linus Carl (28 February 1901–19 August 1994), biochemist, physical chemist, and political activist, was born in Portland, Oregon, the son of Herman Henry William Pauling, a druggist, and Lucy Isabelle Darling. Fascination with his father’s pharmacy sparked an early interest in chemistry, although Pauling himself attributed his decision to enter a career in science to observing a boyhood friend’s experiments with a chemistry set and to his fascination with scientists portrayed in novels. His father’s early death forced the family to survive by running a boarding house. From about age thirteen Pauling took various jobs, from delivery boy to movie projectionist, to help his family, while conducting chemistry experiments in a makeshift basement laboratory at home. He entered Oregon State Agricultural College (later Oregon State University) at age sixteen, without completing high school, to major in chemical engineering. There he met his future wife, Ava Helen Miller, while he was teaching undergraduate chemistry though still a student. In 1922 he graduated summa cum laude and then entered graduate school at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). Pauling and Miller married in 1923; they had four children....