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John Haynes Holmes, c. 1939–1941. Photograph by Louis Fabian Bachrach. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-112447).


Holmes, John Haynes (29 November 1879–03 April 1964), Unitarian and later independent minister and a leading advocate of pacifism, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Marcus M. Holmes, a businessman, and Alice Haynes. Holmes was educated at Harvard College (A.B. 1902) and Harvard Divinity School (S.T.B. 1904) and entered the Unitarian ministry, holding early pastorates at Danvers (1902–1904) and Dorchester (1904–1907), Massachusetts, before moving in 1907 to the Church of the Messiah in New York City, where his influence as a minister dedicated to social reform began to be felt. In 1904 he married Madeleine Baker, with whom he had two children....


Lathrop, John Howland (06 June 1880–20 August 1967), Unitarian minister and peace advocate, was born in Jackson, Michigan, the son of Arthur D. Lathrop, a banker, and Alice McDora Osborne. At seventeen Lathrop started a two-year stint in a wholesale grocery house in Cleveland, Ohio, where he attended alternately the congregation of Moses J. Gries, a celebrated Reform rabbi, and the Unitarian church of Marion E. Murdoch, the first woman to receive a B.D. degree from Meadville Theological School in Pennsylvania (relocated to Chicago in 1926). Following in Murdoch’s footsteps, Lathrop attended Meadville, graduating in 1903. Moving on to Harvard University, where he started as a junior, Lathrop was profoundly influenced by the philosopher ...