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Clague, Ewan (27 December 1896–12 April 1987), economist and civil servant, was born in Prescott, Washington, the son of John Clague and Eleanor Christian Cooper, farmers and immigrants from the Isle of Man, Great Britain. Clague attended the University of Washington, earning an A.B. in economics in 1917. After two years in the U.S. Army, 1917–1919, he returned to the University of Washington, where he earned an A.M. in economics in 1921. He went on to study for his doctorate in economics at what was then perhaps the nation’s leading institution of higher education in the fields of labor economics and industrial relations, the University of Wisconsin....

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Orshansky, Mollie (9 Jan. 1915–18 Dec. 2006), civil servant, economist and statistician, was born in the Bronx, New York City, the sixth daughter of Samuel Orshansky and Fannie Orshansky, recent Jewish immigrants from the Ukraine. Samuel worked at various occupations (tinworker, ironworker, plumber, repairman), eventually becoming the proprietor of a small neighborhood grocery store. Mollie was born in poverty and grew up understanding how families coped with inadequate incomes. In her South Bronx neighborhood few young women went even as far as high school, going directly into the labor force as soon as possible. Mollie was the first member of her family to attend high school. She graduated Hunter College High School in ...

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Tolley, Howard Ross (30 September 1889–18 September 1958), agricultural economist and civil servant, was born in Howard County, Indiana, the son of Elmer E. Tolley, a farmer and schoolteacher, and Mollie Grindle, also a schoolteacher. Tolley attended Marion Normal College in Marion, Indiana, and Indiana University, where he received a B.A. in mathematics. He then taught high school mathematics in Michigan City, Indiana, but found it unrewarding. Through a civil service examination, he obtained a job as a “computer” with the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. He married Zora Hazlett and moved to Washington, D.C., in 1912; they had three children....