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Draper, Richard (24 February 1727–05 June 1774), Massachusetts Loyalist, printer, and publisher, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of John Draper, the publisher of the Boston News-Letter, and Deborah Green. His mother came from a family of official printers in Connecticut going back six generations to ...

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Mein, John (1732–1810), bookseller, printer, and Loyalist publisher, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, the son of John Mein, a burgess and guildsman of Edinburgh and a slater by trade. His mother’s name is unknown. John, Jr., was also enrolled as a burgess and guildsman in December 1760. Little is known about Mein apart from his role in supporting British policy during the revolutionary crisis. He emigrated to Boston in November 1764 and set up the first of his three shops in company with ...

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Robertson, James (1747–24 April 1816), Loyalist printer and journalist, was born in Stonehaven, Scotland, the son of Alexander Robertson, a printer, and possibly Elizabeth Anderson. (Records show that she was at some point married to his father but not whether she was the mother of his children.) James learned the trade of printing in his father’s shop in Edinburgh, but he did not remain in Scotland. In 1766 he sailed for America, seeking better opportunities for economic success. Robertson became a journeyman printer in the shop of ...

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John Brown Russwurm. Oil on canvas, c. 1850, by Unidentified Artist. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; transfer from the Library of Congress.

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Russwurm, John Brown (01 October 1799–09 June 1851), journalist and first nonwhite governor of Maryland in Liberia Colony, West Africa, was born in Port Antonio, Jamaica, the son of John Russwurm, a white American merchant, and an unidentified Jamaican black woman. As a boy known only as John Brown, Russwurm was sent to Canada for an education by his father. After his father’s settlement in Maine and marriage in 1813 to a white New England widow with children, he entered the new family at his stepmother’s insistence. John Brown thereupon assumed his father’s surname and remained with his stepmother even after the senior Russwurm’s death in 1815. His schooling continued at home and, later, at preparatory institutes such as the North Yarmouth Academy in Maine. He made a short, unhappy visit to Jamaica and returned to Portland, Maine, to begin collegiate study. Thrown on his own after just one year because of his sponsor’s inability to continue support, young Russwurm took a succession of brief teaching jobs at African free schools in Philadelphia, New York, and Boston....