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Bradford, Edward Hickling (09 June 1848–07 May 1926), orthopedic surgeon, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Charles F. Bradford, a merchant, and Eliza E. Hickling. After attending preparatory schools, Bradford earned degrees from Harvard College in 1869 and from Harvard Medical School in 1873. Following an internship at the Massachusetts General Hospital, he spent two years in Europe, visiting various medical centers and attending lectures and clinics. Having developed a special interest in orthopedic surgery, he worked for some months in England with Owen Thomas of Liverpool, a pioneer in joint surgery. After his return to America, Bradford studied under another outstanding Charles Fayette Taylor, in New York before returning to Boston and establishing his practice....

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Holmes, Hamilton (08 July 1941–24 October 1995), orthopedic surgeon and one of the first two black students to desegregate the University of Georgia, was born Hamilton Earl Holmes in Atlanta, Georgia, the son of Alfred “Tup” Holmes, a businessman, and Isabella Holmes, a grade school teacher. His influences in civil rights were strong; his father, grandfather Hamilton Mayo Holmes, and uncle Oliver Wendell Holmes filed suit to desegregate Atlanta's public golf courses in 1955. (The 1956 Supreme Court decision on their cases made the golf courses the first integrated public facilities in Atlanta.) His mother had been part of a program that integrated blind or partially sighted children into mainstream classrooms....

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Judson, Adoniram Brown (07 April 1837–20 September 1916), orthopedic surgeon, was born in Maulmain, Burma, the son of Adoniram Judson, a noted missionary, and his second wife, Sarah Hall Boardman. After graduation from Brown University in 1859 with his A.M., Judson attended lectures at the Harvard Medical School. In 1861, without having completed his medical education but having passed the necessary examination, Judson was commissioned as assistant surgeon in the U.S. Navy. He was promoted to passed assistant surgeon in 1864, and having pursued his medical studies while in service and having attained his medical degree from the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia in 1865, he was commissioned surgeon in 1866. Judson resigned his post in 1868 and took up the practice of medicine in New York. In the same year he obtained a second M.D., ...

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Orr, H. Winnett (17 March 1877–11 October 1956), orthopedic surgeon, was born Hiram Winnett Orr in West Newton, Pennsylvania, the son of Andrew Wilson Orr, a dentist, and Frances Josephine Winnett. After graduation from West Newton High School in 1892, Orr traveled to Lincoln, Nebraska, to live and study medicine with his uncle, Hudson J. Winnett. A medical career had been planned for young Orr, and his uncle had agreed to provide financial assistance for his education. Orr studied at the University of Nebraska and assisted Winnett in his practice. After graduation in 1895, Orr entered the University of Michigan, where he earned his medical degree in 1899. He had applied for an internship in Cleveland, Ohio, but Winnett was ill and needed help with his practice, so Orr returned to Lincoln....

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Sayre, Lewis Albert (29 February 1820–21 September 1900), orthopedic surgeon, was born in Bottle Hill, New Jersey, the son of Archibald Sayre and Martha Sayer, farmers. After completing his secondary education at Wantage Seminary in Deckertown, New Jersey, he went to Lexington, Kentucky, to live with his uncle while attending Transylvania University. In 1839 he received an A.B. and moved to New York City, where he became a medical apprentice to Dr. David Green and a student at the College of Physicians and Surgeons. He developed an interest in physical deformities and wrote a thesis on spinal irritation, which drew the attention of surgeons around the country following its publication in the ...

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Steindler, Arthur (22 June 1878–23 July 1959), orthopedic surgeon, was born in Vienna, Austria, the son of Leopold Steindler, an attorney, and Caroline Goldberg. Steindler wanted to be a concert pianist, but his father convinced him to attend medical school. Steindler studied at the University of Prague from 1896 to 1898, completing his medical degree at the University of Vienna in 1902. He studied orthopedics with Edward Albert, Adolph Lorenz, and Carl Friedlander. Steindler was an assistant in Viennese hospitals and a lieutenant surgeon in the Austrian army....

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Whitman, Royal (24 October 1857–19 August 1946), orthopedic surgeon, was born in Portland, Maine, the son of Royal Emerson Whitman, a saddle manufacturer, and Lucretia Octavia Whitman, a member of another branch of the family. Whitman grew up on a family farm in Turner, Maine, under his mother’s care and strict religious supervision. This strong religious upbringing later turned him permanently against formal religion in his life. He graduated from a high school in Auburn, Maine, and worked as a pharmacist while studying medicine as an apprentice for two years. He then worked his way through Harvard Medical School, from which he received an M.D. in 1882....