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Abel, John Jacob (19 May 1857–26 May 1938), pharmacologist, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, the son of George Abel and Mary Becker, farmers. His mother died of puerperal fever while giving birth to her eighth child when Abel was fifteen. After graduating as the top student in the Cleveland high school system, Abel enrolled at the University of Michigan in 1876. His education was interrupted at the end of his third year for financial reasons, and he spent the next three years as a teacher, principal, and then superintendent of schools in La Porte, Indiana. He met his future wife, Mary Hinman, in La Porte, where she was a high school teacher....

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Auer, John (30 March 1875–30 April 1948), pharmacologist and physiologist, was born in Rochester, New York, the son of Henry Auer, a German-born brewer, and Luise Hummel. After secondary education in church and public schools in Chicago, he received his B.S. from the University of Michigan in 1898 and his M.D. from Johns Hopkins University in 1902. He spent a year as a medical house officer (intern) at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, and in 1903 he moved to the brand new Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, which became Rockefeller University in 1965....

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Brodie, Bernard Beryl (07 August 1907?–27 February 1989), pharmacologist, was born in Liverpool, England, the son of Samuel Brodie and Esther Ginsberg. Some sources give his birth year as 1909. When Brodie was four, the family moved to Ottawa, Canada, where his father owned a men’s furnishings store. Brodie attended public schools, recalling later that he was a poor student and was even expelled for insubordination before completing high school....

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Graham, Helen Tredway (21 July 1890–04 April 1971), pharmacologist, was born in Dubuque, Iowa, the daughter of Harry Ennis Tredway, a merchant, and Marian McConnell. Graham attended local public schools and then traveled east to matriculate at Bryn Mawr. First in her class at this college, Graham received a B.S. in 1911 and an M.A. in chemistry in 1912. She then won a fellowship to pursue postgraduate study abroad. Her year at Georg August University in Göttingen, Germany, cemented her interest in organic chemistry. When Tredway returned to the United States in 1913, she entered the University of Chicago’s graduate program in chemistry, from which she received a Ph.D. in 1915. While at Chicago, she met young physician Evarts Graham, and the two were married in 1916. Shortly thereafter they moved to Mason City, Iowa, where Evarts commenced practice; they had two children....

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Hatcher, Robert Anthony (06 February 1868–01 April 1944), pharmacologist, was born in New Madrid, Missouri, the son of Richard Hardaway Hatcher, an attorney, and Harriet Hinton Marr. The family had lost much in the Civil War, so Robert was raised in the home of his uncle Robert Marr, a prominent judge. He developed an interest in pharmacy and attended the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, where he received his graduate in pharmacy degree in 1889. After spending five years working in a pharmacy in New Orleans, Hatcher enrolled in the Tulane University Medical School, where he obtained his M.D. in 1898. In 1899 he accepted a position teaching materia medica at the Cleveland School of Pharmacy....

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Hirschfelder, Arthur Douglas (29 September 1879–11 October 1942), pharmacologist and cardiologist, was born in San Francisco, California, the son of Joseph Oakland Hirschfelder, a physician, and Clara Honigsberg. Joseph Hirschfelder, who was professor of medicine at Cooper Medical College (later Stanford University School of Medicine), had done postgraduate studies in Germany and was active in clinical research. His example influenced the choice of career of his son Arthur, who greatly admired his father....

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Hunt, Reid (20 April 1870–10 March 1948), pharmacologist, was born in Martinsville, Ohio, the son of Milton L. Hunt, a banker, and Sarah E. Wright, a schoolteacher. His parents were Quakers who valued education and literature. Hunt’s interests focused early on science as he studied chemistry with the town pharmacist. After graduating from high school at age sixteen, he spent one year at Wilmington College and one at the University of Ohio at Athens. He completed his undergraduate studies at Johns Hopkins University in 1891....

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King, John (01 January 1813–19 June 1893), physician and pharmacologist, was born in New York City, the son of Harman King, a custom house official, and Marguerite La Porte. He completed his undergraduate education (it is not known which college he attended) mostly to placate his parents’ desire that he enter some sort of commercial pursuit; however, he was more interested in a scientific career and while in school read extensively about physics, chemistry, and botany. In 1833 he married Charlotte Armington, with whom he had eight children. In 1835 he delivered a series of lectures on topics related to the earth’s magnetism at the Mechanic’s Institute of New York and the New Bedford (Mass.) Lyceum....

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Krayer, Otto Hermann (22 October 1899–18 March 1982), pharmacologist, was born in Köndringen, Baden, Germany, the son of Hermann Krayer, an innkeeper, and Frieda Berta Wolfsperger. Early in his life Krayer’s intellectual gifts attracted the attention of the schoolmaster, who persuaded his parents to continue his education at the six-year middle school in Emmendengen. Since World War I was in progress, Krayer entered the army and was sent to the western front; shortly before the armistice, he was wounded. While recovering, he completed the university entrance requirements, and in 1919 he enrolled in the University of Freiburg medical school. In 1920 he transferred to the medical school at the University of Munich. In 1922 he returned to the University of Freiburg for clinical studies. Bored with the didactic lectures, Krayer sought intellectual stimulation and undertook a project on the comparative anatomy of the amphibian kidney under Wilhelm von Möllendorf. The lectures in pharmacology from Paul Trendelenberg impressed Krayer, and after completing his formal course he spent part of 1925 working in Trendelenberg’s department. In 1926 he received his M.D. degree for his dissertation on apocodeine. He then began a career in pharmacology as Trendelenberg’s assistant. When Trendelenberg moved to Berlin, Krayer followed and rapidly advanced through the ranks from Oberassistant to Privatdocent. When Trendelenberg became seriously ill, Krayer assumed full responsibility for the department, and upon his chief’s death in 1931 he was made acting head and the following year professor extraordinarius of pharmacology and toxicology. Because of the heavy teaching and administrative loads, there was no time for research. Krayer was also left with the task of completing and publishing the third edition of Trendelenberg’s textbook of pharmacology as well as the second volume of his ...

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Loewi, Otto (03 June 1873–25 December 1961), pharmacologist, was born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, the son of Jacob Loewi, a wine merchant, and Anna Willstädter. After spending his early years at a family home in the Hardt Mountains, Loewi entered the Frankfurt gymnasium at age nine. He found mathematics and physics difficult but excelled in the humanities and initially desired to be an art historian. At the urging of his parents, however, he decided to study medicine and in 1891 entered the University of Strasbourg. There Loewi was influenced by such greats as Gustave Schwalbe in anatomy, Bernhard Naunyn in medicine and experimental pathology, and Oswald Schmiedeberg in pharmacology. Loewi’s research for his dissertation was directed by Schmiedeberg and was concerned with the effects of hydrocyanic acid, arsenic, and phosphorus on the isolated heart of the frog....

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MacNider, William De Berniere (25 June 1881–31 May 1951), physician and medical educator, was born in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, the son of Virginius St. Clair MacNider, a physician, and Sophia Beatty Mallett. MacNider was keenly interested in natural history and science during his childhood, and the university environment at Chapel Hill undoubtedly strengthened his desire for a career in the biological sciences. After attending public schools in Chapel Hill, he enrolled at the University of North Carolina in 1898. His father and grandfather were both physicians, and their influence probably contributed to his choice of a medical career; while an undergraduate, he resolved to become a medical researcher. His abilities were soon recognized by the faculty, and he was hired during his graduate study years as an assistant in biology from 1899 to 1900, as assistant in anatomy from 1900 to 1902, and as assistant in clinical diagnosis from 1902 until 1905. MacNider graduated in 1903 with the first class of the University of North Carolina Medical School to receive the M.D. degree. He subsequently received additional research and clinical training at the University of Chicago and at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. During these formative years MacNider benefited significantly from the mentorship of such prominent biologists and medical scientists as ...

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Marshall, Eli Kennerly, Jr. (02 May 1889–10 January 1966), pharmacologist and physiologist, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the son of Eli Kennerly Marshall, a retail (shoe) merchant, and Julia Irene Brown. Marshall obtained his B.S. at the College of Charleston in 1908 and his Ph.D. in chemistry at Johns Hopkins University in 1911. In 1912 he studied with the physiologist Emil Abderhalden in Halle, Germany. At Johns Hopkins Medical School he was assistant in physiological chemistry (1911–1914), successfully beginning a research career with the development of an enzymatic method for the determination of urea that was subsequently used for the study of the distribution in the organism and excretion of urea. From 1914 to 1917 he was associate in pharmacology with the pharmacologist ...

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Richards, Alfred Newton (22 March 1876–24 March 1966), pharmacologist, was born in Stamford, New York, the son of Reverend Leonard E. Richards, a Presbyterian minister, and Mary Elizabeth Burbank, a schoolteacher. From the beginning, religion played an important part in Richards’s life: his mother named him for her best friend’s father, Reverend Alfred Newton. Not only did his father have religious training, but his mother held a degree from Granville Female Seminary. Richards himself attended the Stamford Seminary and Union Free School, graduating as the valedictorian in 1892....

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Sutherland, Earl W. (19 November 1915–09 March 1974), biochemist and pharmacologist, was born Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr., in Burlingame, Kansas, the son of Earl W. Sutherland, a merchant, and Edith M. Hartshorn. Raised in a rural area, Sutherland fished, hunted, and acquired a love of nature early in his life. While receiving his secondary education in local schools, he also acquired a lifelong love of baseball, football, and tennis. Sutherland’s desire to study medicine and become a scientist was stimulated by ...

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Weiss, Soma (27 January 1899–31 January 1942), physician and pharmacologist, was born in Bestereze, Hungary, the son of Ignas Weiss, an architect and engineer, and Leah Kahan. In 1916 Weiss entered the Royal Hungarian University in Budapest, where he studied physiology and biochemistry under Paul Hare. Between 1918 and 1920 he served as an instructor and demonstrator at the academy. In 1919 Weiss received American praise for a paper he published on respiratory metabolism, and since the climate in Hungary after World War I was hostile toward academia, he immigrated to the United States in 1920....