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Andersen, Dorothy Hansine (15 May 1901–03 March 1963), pediatrician and pathologist, was born in Asheville, North Carolina, the only child of Hans Peter Andersen, a secretary for the YMCA, and Mary Louise Mason. Andersen’s father died in 1914, leaving her alone to care for her invalid mother. The two moved to Saint Johnsbury, Vermont, where Louise Andersen died six years later. At the age of nineteen Andersen, with no close relatives, became fully responsible for her own upbringing....

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Biggs, Hermann Michael (29 September 1859–28 June 1923), pathologist, bacteriologist, physician, and public health official, was born in Trumansburg, New York, the son of Joseph Hunt Biggs and Melissa Pratt. Dr. Biggs married Frances M. Richardson, of Hornellsville, New York, in 1898; they had two children. Biggs received his primary education in Ithaca, New York, and matriculated into Cornell University, where he received the bachelor of arts degree in 1882. From Cornell Biggs went on to medical school at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, where he received his M.D. the following year. He spent the next eighteen months (1882–1883) in the postgraduate course at Bellevue, where he served as a rotating intern and resident physician. Upon completion of this course, Biggs traveled to Europe and spent the next two years (1883–1885) studying bacteriology in Berlin and Griefswald. When he returned to New York City in 1886, Biggs was made director of the newly opened Carnegie Bacteriology Laboratory of the Bellevue Hospital. His rise in academic rank was meteoric; appointed a lecturer in pathology in 1886, Biggs was made a full professor of pathology in 1889, professor of materia medica (pharmacology) in 1892, professor of therapeutics in 1898, and professor of medicine in 1912....

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Cone, Claribel (14 November 1864–20 September 1929), and Etta Cone (30 November 1870–31 August 1949), art collectors, were born in Jonesboro, Tennessee, the daughters of Herman Cone, a grocery business owner, and Helen Guggenheimer. The Cone family moved in 1871 to Baltimore, where Herman Cone opened a wholesale grocery business. The business flourished, and the Cones moved to a fashionable neighborhood and engaged in the social life of a large German-Jewish community. By the late 1880s the two eldest sons, ...

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See Cone, Claribel

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Councilman, William Thomas (01 January 1854–26 May 1933), pathologist, was born in Pikesville, Maryland, the son of John F. Councilman, a physician and farmer, and Christiana Drummond Mitchell. Councilman grew up on a busy farm where he began cultivating his powers of observation and an interest in plants. He attended St. John’s College in Annapolis, Maryland, for his freshman and sophomore years but then left to engage in jobbing coffee and in other business enterprises. Around 1876 Councilman decided to go into medicine and enrolled in the University of Maryland. While there he lived at home, dissected animals, and built up a large collection of skulls and other bones. He received his M.D. in 1878....

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De Witt, Lydia Maria (01 February 1859–10 March 1928), pathologist, was born in Flint, Michigan, the daughter of Oscar Adams, an attorney, and Elizabeth Walton. Her mother died when Lydia was five, and she was brought up by her father’s second wife, the sister of his first wife....

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Delafield, Francis (03 August 1841–17 July 1915), physician, was born in New York City, the son of Edward Delafield, a physician, and Julia Floyd. After graduating from Yale University (A.B., 1860), he entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York and was awarded the M.D. in 1863. He then went to Europe to continue his studies and was strongly influenced by the theories of Rudolf Virchow, author of ...

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Ewing, James (25 December 1866–16 May 1943), pathologist, was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the son of Julia Ruppert Hufnagel and Thomas Ewing, a judge. Ewing was attending Central High School in Pittsburgh when, at the age of fourteen, he contracted osteomyelitis of the femur, which confined him to bed for two years. While ill he was tutored in Greek and Latin. He entered and won a local contest by providing the largest number of words compounded from the letters in the word ...

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Fenger, Christian (03 November 1840–07 March 1902), surgeon, pathologist, and teacher, was born on the Brejninggaard estate in North Jutland, Denmark, the son of Hans Frederik Fenger and Frederikke Mathilde Fjelstrup, prosperous farmers. An uncle, Carl Emil Fenger, a physician and faculty member at the University of Copenhagen, may have influenced Fenger’s ultimate choice of profession. First, however, young Fenger entered the Polytechnic Institute in Copenhagen to study engineering. After the first year his father urged him to go into medicine, and so he entered the university’s medical school, obtaining his license to practice in 1867 and his M.D. in 1874, with a thesis on cancer of the stomach....

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Flexner, Simon (25 March 1863–02 May 1946), pathologist and bacteriologist, was born in Louisville, Kentucky, the son of well-educated Jewish immigrants Morris Flexner, a merchant and salesman, and Esther Abraham, a seamstress. Simon Flexner had little formal education. As a child he was an indifferent student and a mischief maker. He quit school in the sixth grade and held a variety of menial jobs. At age sixteen he nearly succumbed to typhoid fever, and after he recovered his attitude toward education changed. He became a pharmacy apprentice at Vincent Davis’s drugstore for two years and attended two three-month courses of lectures at the Louisville College of Pharmacy, surprising his family by finishing first in his class in 1882. Upon graduating he clerked for eight years in the drugstore owned by his eldest brother, Jacob. Simon lived over the store, made up for his educational deficits by studying math and science from his brothers’ school books, took up botanizing and microscopy, and organized the Louisville Microscopical Club. He taught himself histology and acquired an interest in pathology through local doctors, who gathered to converse in Jacob’s store and brought him specimens to analyze. Simon Flexner hoped to open his own pathological laboratory in Louisville, so he entered the University of Louisville School of Medicine and earned an M.D. in 1889. At the urging of his younger brother Abraham, who later became known for writing the Carnegie Institution report on American medical schools, Flexner enrolled in the postgraduate course in pathology at the Johns Hopkins University....

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Frantz, Virginia Kneeland (13 November 1896–23 August 1967), surgeon and medical pathologist, was born in New York City, the daughter of Yale Kneeland, a wheat merchant, and Anna Ilsley Ball. She attended Brearley School in New York City and entered Bryn Mawr College in 1914, intending to prepare for a career in medicine. Toward that end she was encouraged by college president ...

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Fuller, Solomon Carter (11 August 1872–16 January 1953), neuropathologist and psychiatrist, was born in Monrovia, Liberia, the son of Solomon Carter Fuller, a coffee planter and Liberian government official, and Anna Ursala James. His father, son of a repatriated former American slave, was able to provide a private education for his children at a school he established on his prosperous plantation. In the summer of 1889 young Solomon Fuller left home to return to the country where his grandfather had once been held in bondage. He sought higher education at Livingstone College in Salisbury, North Carolina, a college for black students founded ten years earlier....

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Gardner, Leroy Upson (09 December 1888–24 October 1946), physician, was born in New Britain, Connecticut, the son of Irving Isaac Gardner, a real estate and insurance broker, and Inez Baldwin Upson. As a boy, Gardner attended the public schools of Meriden, Connecticut. He then went to Yale University in nearby New Haven, receiving a B.A. in 1912. He proceeded to the Yale School of Medicine and graduated in 1914 with an M.D. Gardner pursued an interest in pathology by accepting a three-year internship at Boston City Hospital, where he worked under the guidance of ...

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Gerhard, William Wood (23 July 1809–28 April 1872), physician and pathologist, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of William Gerhard, a hatter, and Sarah Wood. His parents were Moravians. After graduation from Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in 1826, Gerhard received his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1830. His thesis on endermic medication, based on nearly 200 cases that he had observed as a resident pupil in the Philadelphia Almshouse, appeared in the ...

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Goldblatt, Harry (14 March 1891–06 January 1977), pathologist and medical researcher, was born in Muscatine, Iowa, the son of Lithuanian immigrants Philip Goldblatt, a merchant, and Jenny Spitz. When he was six, Goldblatt’s family relocated to Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where his father developed a thriving business supplying coal, wood, and ice. In 1908 Goldblatt entered McGill University intending to pursue a career in mining engineering. Guided by Carrie Derrick, the first female professor at McGill University, Goldblatt developed an interest in biology and decided to study medicine. He received his medical degree in 1916 from McGill. After a year as a surgical resident at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, Goldblatt, who had retained his U.S. citizenship, enlisted in the U.S. Army Medical Reserve Corps, and served as head of orthopedics and fractures at American hospitals in France and Germany....

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Arthur Emanuel Hertzler Courtesy of the Clendening History of Medicine Library, University of Kansas Medical Center.

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Hertzler, Arthur Emanuel (25 July 1870–12 September 1946), physician, surgeon, and pathologist, was born in the Mennonite community of West Point, Iowa, the son of Daniel Hertzler, a farmer, and Hannah Krehbiel, the first Mennonite child born west of the Mississippi River. Hertzler’s parents grew to hold divergent religious beliefs, separating their family, according to Hertzler, “as completely broken as it would have been by divorce,” and leaving Hertzler a lifelong skeptic about organized religion....

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Hinton, William Augustus (15 December 1883–08 August 1959), physician and clinical pathologist, was born in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Augustus Hinton, a railroad porter, and Marie Clark; both parents were former slaves. His formal education was completed in Kansas City, Kansas, where his parents moved before his first birthday. After attending the University of Kansas from 1900 to 1902, he transferred to Harvard College, where he received a B.S. in 1905....

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Hurdon, Elizabeth (28 January 1868–29 January 1941), gynecologist and pathologist, was born in Bodmin, England, the daughter of John Hurdon, a linen and woolen draper, and Ann Coom. Soon after her birth, the Hurdons and their two daughters moved to Canada. Not much is known about Elizabeth’s early years, but by age thirteen she was attending the Wesleyan Ladies College in Hamilton, Ontario, where in 1886 she received a degree in literature. In 1895 she received a medical degree from the Trinity College of the University of Toronto....

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Kinyoun, Joseph James (25 November 1860–14 February 1919), pathologist, was born in East Bend, North Carolina, the son of John Hendricks Kinyoun, a physician, and Elizabeth Conrad. Reared in Centre View, Missouri, Kinyoun first studied medicine as an apprentice to his father. In 1880 he enrolled for a year’s course of lectures in St. Louis Medical College, after which he attended Bellevue Hospital Medical College of New York University, where he received the M.D. in 1882....