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Carter, Henry Rose (25 August 1852–14 September 1925), sanitarian and epidemiologist, was born in Caroline County, Virginia, the son of Henry Rose Carter and Emma Coleman, planters. Carter graduated from the University of Virginia in 1873 with a degree in mathematics and engineering. A leg injury at that time led him to abandon plans for the active life that engineering entailed. After teaching for three years he earned a medical degree from the University of Maryland in 1879. He then entered government employment in the Marine Hospital Service, later the U.S. Public Health Service. Carter’s engineering education had equipped him for this competitive post, which offered a steady salary, travel, and the challenge of public health work. His career spanned the time during which the Marine Hospital Service evolved from an agency that ran hospitals for the merchant marine (and hired doctors to work in them) to the national public health service, maintaining quarantine stations and fighting epidemics along the American coast. Carter was a central figure in that expansion, acquiring and systematizing the knowledge needed to combat the principal foes: yellow fever and later malaria with a uniform public health code backed by federal authority. Although he often suffered from ill health, which included a disability from his leg injury, Meniere’s disease, syphilis acquired during a surgical procedure, and, at the end, angina, Carter traveled widely and lived a vigorous professional life....

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Chapin, Charles Value (17 January 1856–31 January 1941), public health officer and epidemiologist, was born in Providence, Rhode Island, the son of Joshua Bicknell Chapin, who was successively a physician, pharmacist, photographer, and Rhode Island Commissioner of Public Schools, and Jane Catherine Louise Value, a portrait painter. After graduating with a B.A. from Brown University in 1876, Chapin remained in Providence for another year reading medicine under preceptors. He then continued his medical training with a year at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York, followed by a year at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, where he studied pathology under ...

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Francis, Thomas, Jr. (15 July 1900–01 October 1969), physician, virologist, and epidemiologist, was born in Gas City, Indiana, the son of Thomas Francis, a Methodist lay preacher and steelworker, and Elizabeth Ann Cadogan, a Salvation Army worker. He graduated from Allegheny College in 1921 and from Yale University School of Medicine in 1925. He received his residence training under Francis G. Blake at the New Haven Hospital....

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Frost, Wade Hampton (03 March 1880–30 April 1938), epidemiologist and physician, was born in Marshall, Virginia, the son of Henry Frost, a physician and Sabra J. Walker. Frost was brought up in the rural setting of Marshall, near the Blue Ridge Mountains. His days as a boy were generally spent doing chores, accompanying his father on rounds to see patients throughout the countryside, and studying. Frost was schooled at home by his mother until the age of fifteen, when he was sent for a year to a military school in nearby Danville. He completed his college preparatory education at the Randolph Macon Academy, graduating in 1897. After working in a local store for a year, Frost entered the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. He received his undergraduate degree three years later in the spring of 1901. That fall he enrolled in the University of Virginia’s Medical School, and he earned the degree of Doctor of Medicine in June 1903....

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Langmuir, Alexander Duncan (22 September 1910–22 November 1993), epidemiologist, was born in Santa Monica, California, the son of Charles Herbert Langmuir, an insurance company executive, and Edith Ruggles. When he was eleven years old, the family moved to Englewood, New Jersey, where he soon came under the influence of his uncle, ...

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Lining, John ( April 1708–21 September 1760), physician and scientist, was born in Lanarkshire, Scotland, the son of Thomas Lining, a minister, and Anne Hamilton. Between 1697 and 1728 his native shire produced four of the leading figures of British medicine: William Smellie, William Cullen, William Hunter, and John Hunter. Given this fertile environment, it is not surprising that Lining turned to medicine as a career. In addition to studying medicine in Scotland, it is likely that he also studied at the University of Leyden but did not take a degree. He was a friend and most probably a student of Leyden resident D. Hermann Boerhaave, then the most influential medical educator and theorist in Europe (Waring, p. 255)....

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Lumsden, Leslie Leon (14 June 1875–08 November 1946), epidemiologist and public health administrator, was born in Granite Springs, Virginia, the son of James Fife Lumsden, a merchant and farmer, and Martha Ann Hillman. His early education took place at private schools in Virginia. He gained admission to the Medical School of the University of Virginia without an undergraduate degree (a common practice at American medical schools well into the early twentieth century) and graduated with an M.D. in 1894. Lumsden secured an internship at the newly established Johns Hopkins Hospital, which with the related Baltimore medical school was setting a new American standard for excellence in medical education. His stint at Hopkins and two additional internships at New York hospitals gave Lumsden four years of postgraduate medical training. In March 1898 he was awarded a commission in the U.S. Public Health Service (then the Marine Hospital Service) after passing a series of rigorous examinations....

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Paul, John Rodman (18 April 1893–06 May 1971), clinical epidemiologist and virologist, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Henry Neill Paul, a lawyer, and Margaret Crosby Butler. In 1911 Paul entered Princeton; after graduating in 1915, he went to Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. After the United States became involved in World War I, he joined the Johns Hopkins Hospital unit as an enlisted man, setting up Base Hospital No. 18 in Bazoille sur Meuse, France, in June 1917. After his return to Baltimore in 1918, the great influenza epidemic reached the United States, and Paul observed the great risks of cross-infection among hospitalized patients. After receiving his M.D. in 1919, he spent a brief period as an assistant pathologist at Johns Hopkins. From 1920 to 1922 he was an intern at the Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia....

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Potter, Nathaniel (1770–02 January 1843), physician and medical educator, was born in Easton, Maryland, the son of Zabdiel Potter, a surgeon, and Lucy Bruff. After graduating from an unidentified college in New Jersey in 1790, he matriculated at the University of Pennsylvania and studied medicine with ...

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Rosenau, Milton Joseph (01 January 1869–09 April 1946), epidemiologist and public health pioneer, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Nathan Rosenau, a merchant, and Matilda Blitz. After receiving his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1889, he spent a year as an intern at Philadelphia General Hospital before joining the U.S. Marine Hospital Service (later part of the U.S. Public Health Service). He spent the next two years as an assistant surgeon at the Service’s hospital in Washington, D.C., then studied for a year at the Hygienic Institute of Berlin before returning to his post in Washington for another two years. In 1895 he was appointed quarantine officer for San Francisco, and for the next three years he oversaw quarantine and sanitation projects in California and the Philippine Islands. In 1898 he became the Service’s quarantine officer in Cuba....

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South, Lillian Herreld (31 January 1879–14 September 1966), physician, epidemiologist, and bacteriologist, was born near Bowling Green, Kentucky, the daughter of J. F. South, a physician, and Martha Bell Moore. She graduated from E. B. Potter College in Bowling Green in 1897. South studied at the Paterson (N.J.) General Hospital School of Nursing, earning an R.N. degree in 1899. She then enrolled at the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, graduating with an M.D. in 1904. From 1906 to 1910 she practiced medicine in Bowling Green with partners ...