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Andersen, Dorothy Hansine (15 May 1901–03 March 1963), pediatrician and pathologist, was born in Asheville, North Carolina, the only child of Hans Peter Andersen, a secretary for the YMCA, and Mary Louise Mason. Andersen’s father died in 1914, leaving her alone to care for her invalid mother. The two moved to Saint Johnsbury, Vermont, where Louise Andersen died six years later. At the age of nineteen Andersen, with no close relatives, became fully responsible for her own upbringing....

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Avery, Oswald Theodore (21 October 1877–20 February 1955), bacteriologist, was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, the son of Joseph Francis Avery, a Baptist minister, and Elizabeth Crowdy. Avery’s family moved in 1887 to New York City, where he attended New York Male Grammar School. He received his diploma from that institution in 1893 and continued his education at the Colgate Academy. In 1896 he entered Colgate University, from which he received a B.S. in 1900. He then began the study of medicine at Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons and received an M.D. in 1904. After completing his medical studies, Avery joined the clinical practice of a group of surgeons in New York City. He related well to patients, but because clinical work did not satisfy him intellectually or emotionally, he left the practice around 1907 and worked for a time with the New York City Board of Health and then the Sheffield Dairy Company in Brooklyn as a milk bacteriologist. Later in 1907 he became a bacteriologist at the Hoagland Laboratories in Brooklyn, where director Benjamin White became so impressed with Avery that within a short time he appointed him chief of the division. Avery’s work on bacteria and their relationship to infectious disease attracted the attention of ...

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Bayne-Jones, Stanhope (06 November 1888–20 February 1970), physician and bacteriologist, was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, the son of Samuel Stanhope Davis Jones, a physician, and Amelia Elizabeth Bayne. His childhood was a tumultuous one, largely as a result of the struggles for his custody that followed the death of his mother in 1893 and the subsequent financial ruin and suicide of his father in 1894. Apparently at the instigation of his maternal relatives, in 1902 his last name was changed to Bayne-Jones....

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Berry, George Packer (29 December 1898–05 October 1986), immunologist and medical educator, was born in Troy, New York, the son of the Reverend George Titus Berry and Carrie Electa Packer. Following preparatory education at the Hill School in Pottstown, Pennsylvania, he attended Princeton University, from which he received an A.B. with the highest honors in biology in 1921. After obtaining his M.D. from the Johns Hopkins Medical School in 1925, Berry trained as a house officer at the Johns Hopkins Hospital (1925–1927) and was afterwards assistant resident physician (1927–1928) and instructor in medicine at the Johns Hopkins Medical School (1928–1929). He joined the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in 1929, where he was assistant and later associate; he also served as assistant resident physician at the hospital of the Rockefeller Institute. At Rockefeller he worked with such well-known investigators as ...

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Biggs, Hermann Michael (29 September 1859–28 June 1923), pathologist, bacteriologist, physician, and public health official, was born in Trumansburg, New York, the son of Joseph Hunt Biggs and Melissa Pratt. Dr. Biggs married Frances M. Richardson, of Hornellsville, New York, in 1898; they had two children. Biggs received his primary education in Ithaca, New York, and matriculated into Cornell University, where he received the bachelor of arts degree in 1882. From Cornell Biggs went on to medical school at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, where he received his M.D. the following year. He spent the next eighteen months (1882–1883) in the postgraduate course at Bellevue, where he served as a rotating intern and resident physician. Upon completion of this course, Biggs traveled to Europe and spent the next two years (1883–1885) studying bacteriology in Berlin and Griefswald. When he returned to New York City in 1886, Biggs was made director of the newly opened Carnegie Bacteriology Laboratory of the Bellevue Hospital. His rise in academic rank was meteoric; appointed a lecturer in pathology in 1886, Biggs was made a full professor of pathology in 1889, professor of materia medica (pharmacology) in 1892, professor of therapeutics in 1898, and professor of medicine in 1912....

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James C. Carroll. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-98372).

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Carroll, James (05 June 1854–16 September 1907), bacteriologist and military physician, was born in Woolwich, England, the son of James Carroll, a royal artillery gunner, and Harriet Chiverton. Having attended the Albion House Academy until the age of fifteen, Carroll left Britain for Canada, where he is said to have been a blacksmith, railroad laborer, and backwoodsman. He migrated to the United States in 1874 and volunteered for the U.S. Army, serving with the First Infantry in Montana. He reenlisted in 1879 and eventually was appointed hospital steward at Fort Douglas in Utah....

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Carter, Henry Rose (25 August 1852–14 September 1925), sanitarian and epidemiologist, was born in Caroline County, Virginia, the son of Henry Rose Carter and Emma Coleman, planters. Carter graduated from the University of Virginia in 1873 with a degree in mathematics and engineering. A leg injury at that time led him to abandon plans for the active life that engineering entailed. After teaching for three years he earned a medical degree from the University of Maryland in 1879. He then entered government employment in the Marine Hospital Service, later the U.S. Public Health Service. Carter’s engineering education had equipped him for this competitive post, which offered a steady salary, travel, and the challenge of public health work. His career spanned the time during which the Marine Hospital Service evolved from an agency that ran hospitals for the merchant marine (and hired doctors to work in them) to the national public health service, maintaining quarantine stations and fighting epidemics along the American coast. Carter was a central figure in that expansion, acquiring and systematizing the knowledge needed to combat the principal foes: yellow fever and later malaria with a uniform public health code backed by federal authority. Although he often suffered from ill health, which included a disability from his leg injury, Meniere’s disease, syphilis acquired during a surgical procedure, and, at the end, angina, Carter traveled widely and lived a vigorous professional life....

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Chapin, Charles Value (17 January 1856–31 January 1941), public health officer and epidemiologist, was born in Providence, Rhode Island, the son of Joshua Bicknell Chapin, who was successively a physician, pharmacist, photographer, and Rhode Island Commissioner of Public Schools, and Jane Catherine Louise Value, a portrait painter. After graduating with a B.A. from Brown University in 1876, Chapin remained in Providence for another year reading medicine under preceptors. He then continued his medical training with a year at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York, followed by a year at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, where he studied pathology under ...

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Cone, Claribel (14 November 1864–20 September 1929), and Etta Cone (30 November 1870–31 August 1949), art collectors, were born in Jonesboro, Tennessee, the daughters of Herman Cone, a grocery business owner, and Helen Guggenheimer. The Cone family moved in 1871 to Baltimore, where Herman Cone opened a wholesale grocery business. The business flourished, and the Cones moved to a fashionable neighborhood and engaged in the social life of a large German-Jewish community. By the late 1880s the two eldest sons, ...

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See Cone, Claribel

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Councilman, William Thomas (01 January 1854–26 May 1933), pathologist, was born in Pikesville, Maryland, the son of John F. Councilman, a physician and farmer, and Christiana Drummond Mitchell. Councilman grew up on a busy farm where he began cultivating his powers of observation and an interest in plants. He attended St. John’s College in Annapolis, Maryland, for his freshman and sophomore years but then left to engage in jobbing coffee and in other business enterprises. Around 1876 Councilman decided to go into medicine and enrolled in the University of Maryland. While there he lived at home, dissected animals, and built up a large collection of skulls and other bones. He received his M.D. in 1878....

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Dameshek, William (22 May 1900–06 October 1969), physician and hematologist, was born in Voronezh, Russia, the son of Isadore Dameshek, a hatmaker, and Bessie Muskin. Dameshek moved with his parents to the United States in 1903 and was raised in Medford, Massachusetts. His early education was in the Boston English High School, where he excelled and gained entrance to Harvard University. He joined the U.S. Army in 1918, and upon his discharge he enrolled in the Harvard Medical School, where he received his M.D. in 1923. In the same year Dameshek married Rose Thurman; the couple had one daughter....

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Daniel M. Fox and Marcia L. Meldrum

de Kruif, Paul Henry (02 March 1890–28 February 1971), bacteriologist and writer, was born in Zeeland, Michigan, the son of Hendrik de Kruif, a farm-equipment dealer, and Hendrika Kremer. As an undergraduate at the University of Michigan, he read an article about Paul Ehrlich, the German bacteriologist and Nobel laureate, which he credited with inspiring him to become a “microbe hunter.” He received his B.S. degree in 1912 and remained at Michigan as a Rockefeller research fellow, working with ...

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De Witt, Lydia Maria (01 February 1859–10 March 1928), pathologist, was born in Flint, Michigan, the daughter of Oscar Adams, an attorney, and Elizabeth Walton. Her mother died when Lydia was five, and she was brought up by her father’s second wife, the sister of his first wife....

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Delafield, Francis (03 August 1841–17 July 1915), physician, was born in New York City, the son of Edward Delafield, a physician, and Julia Floyd. After graduating from Yale University (A.B., 1860), he entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York and was awarded the M.D. in 1863. He then went to Europe to continue his studies and was strongly influenced by the theories of Rudolf Virchow, author of ...

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George F. Dick. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B07122).

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Dick, George Frederick (21 July 1881–12 October 1967), physician and bacteriologist, was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, the son of Daniel Dick, a railroad engineer, and Elizabeth King. After two years of college at the Indiana University (1900–1901), Dick matriculated at the Rush Medical College of Chicago, where he received his M.D. in 1905. He then completed an eighteen-month internship at the Cook County Hospital, where he learned about the clinical practice of medicine as he rotated between different clinical services, including internal medicine, pediatrics, gynecology, pathology, and general surgery. Like many an ambitious, young physician of the early twentieth century who set his sights on an academic career, Dick traveled, in 1907, to Vienna and Munich, where he spent the year studying bacteriology. Although he maintained an active presence as a clinician throughout his career, it was his brilliant work in bacteriology that brought him international acclaim....

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Dick, Gladys (18 December 1881–21 August 1963), medical researcher and physician, was born Gladys Rowena Henry in Pawnee City, Nebraska, the daughter of William Chester Henry, a house and grain dealer, and Azelia Henrietta Edson Henry. Her family relocated to Lincoln, Nebraska, following her birth, where she attended local public schools before entering the University of Nebraska. After earning her B.S. in 1900, she had hoped to attend medical school, but faced her mother's stern opposition to the idea, which few women at that time pursued. She spent the next two years teaching high school biology in nearby Kearney, Nebraska, and took additional graduate course work at her alma mater. After finally gaining parental approval, she left Nebraska and journeyed east to the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine....

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Alphonse Raymond Dochez. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B07249).