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Angell, James Rowland (08 May 1869–04 March 1949), academic psychologist and fourteenth president of Yale University, was born in Burlington, Vermont, the son of James Burrill Angell, president of the University of Vermont and later the president of the University of Michigan, and Sarah Swope Caswell, daughter of ...

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Beach, Frank Ambrose, Jr. (13 April 1911–15 June 1988), psychologist and educator, was born in Emporia, Kansas, the son of Frank Ambrose Beach, professor of music, and Bertha Robinson. He received a B.S. in education in 1932 from the Kansas State Teachers College in Emporia, where his father taught. Although he had already developed an interest in psychology, he planned to be a high school English teacher. Because of the depression, however, Beach was unable to find a job and so continued in school at Emporia, receiving an M.S. in psychology in 1933. His thesis project was a search for color vision in rats....

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Campbell, Angus (10 August 1910–15 December 1980), psychologist and educator, was born Albert Angus Campbell in Leiters, Indiana, the son of Albert Alexis Campbell, a public school superintendent, and Orpha Brumbaugh. He grew up in Portland, Oregon, and received a B.A. in 1931 and an M.A. in 1932 in psychology at the University of Oregon. In 1936 he completed his doctoral training as an experimental psychologist at Stanford University, where he trained under psychologists Ernest R. Hilgard and ...

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Carmichael, Leonard (09 November 1898–16 September 1973), experimental psychologist and institutional administrator, was born in Germantown, Pennsylvania, the son of Thomas Harrison Carmichael, a physician, and Emily Leonard, a teacher and administrator. He entered Tufts College in 1917, volunteered as a private in the U.S. Army in 1918, and received his B.S. in biology summa cum laude in 1921. His Ph.D. in psychology was awarded by Harvard University in 1924, and he joined the Princeton University psychology department that same year. While still in graduate school, he was identified as an especially promising scholar, and he rose rapidly through the academic ranks. In 1927 he moved to Brown University as director of the Psychological Laboratory and was promoted to professor the following year....

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Franz, Shepherd Ivory (27 May 1874–14 October 1933), psychologist and administrator, was born in Jersey City, New Jersey, the son of D. W. William Franz and Frances Elvira Stoddard, occupations unknown. In 1890 he entered Columbia University, from which he earned an A.B. in 1894 and a Ph.D. in 1899. His principal supervisor was ...

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Guilford, Joy Paul (07 March 1897–26 November 1987), psychologist and educator, was born in Hamilton County, Nebraska, the son of Edwin Augustus Guilford and Arvilla Monroe, farmers. He attended college at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln, where he earned both an A.B. (1922) and an M.A. (1924) in psychology. His undergraduate studies were briefly interrupted by service in the Army Signal Corps during World War I. Although Guilford was interested in a career as a chemist when he entered the University of Nebraska, his experience in psychology courses led him to choose a career in psychology....

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G. Stanley Hall. [front row, left to right] Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, and C. G. Jung, right. [second row, left to right] A. A. Brill, Ernest Jones, and Sandor Ferenczi. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-94957).

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Hall, Granville Stanley (01 February 1844–24 April 1924), psychologist and educator, was born in Ashfield, Massachusetts, the son of Granville Bascom Hall, a farmer and local leader, and Abigail Beals. Raised in a family of Congregational piety and intellectual and social ambition, Hall graduated from Williams College with a B.A. degree in 1867 and attended Union Theological Seminary from 1867 to 1869. Interested in a philosophical career, he then spent fifteen months of study in Berlin, where he was drawn to Hegelian philosophy and evolutionary naturalism. Although he returned to Union and earned a divinity degree in 1870, he did not want to preach. After teaching philosophy and literature at Antioch College from 1872 to 1876, he decided to focus on physiological psychology. At Harvard University he studied under ...

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Harlow, Harry Frederick (31 October 1905–06 December 1981), comparative psychologist and primatologist, was born Harry Frederick Israel in Fairfield, Iowa, the son of Lon Israel, at times a merchandiser, inventor, and owner of a country store, and Mable Rock. He entered Reed College in 1923 but transferred after a year to Stanford University, where he earned a B.A. in 1927 (major in psychology) and a Ph.D. in 1930 (specialization in comparative psychology). In the anti-Semitic climate of the day, the name of Israel was making it difficult for Stanford faculty advisers to place him in an academic position. They recommended that he change his surname, and so in 1930, shortly before receiving his Ph.D., he legally became Harry Harlow. He accepted a faculty appointment at the University of Wisconsin that same year. Upon assuming the position, he was thwarted in conducting research using rats because the psychology department’s animal laboratory had been torn down during the summer before his arrival. He therefore turned to studying primates at the local zoo and thence began his career as a primatologist. He remained at Wisconsin until his retirement in 1974, except for leaves of absence in 1939–1940 as Carnegie fellow in anthropology at Columbia University and in 1950–1952 as head of the Human Resources Research Branch of the Department of the Army. From 1974 to the time of his death he was a visiting scholar at the University of Arizona. Harlow was thrice married: to Clara Mears from 1932 until their divorce in 1946, to Margaret Kuenne from 1948 until her death in 1971, and again to his first wife, Clara, in 1972. There were two children from each of the first two marriages....

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Judd, Charles Hubbard (23 February 1873–19 July 1946), psychologist and educator, was born in Bareilly, India, the son of Charles Wesley Judd, a Methodist missionary, and Sarah Annis Hubbard. Judd went to Binghamton, New York, at the age of six with his parents, who were returning home, because of poor health, from missionary service in India. Both parents died within five years, and he was cared for by an older sister. After graduation from Binghamton public schools, Judd entered Wesleyan University (1890–1894) with the intention of preparing for the ministry. Psychology classes at Wesleyan taught by Andrew C. Armstrong influenced Judd to change plans and dedicate himself to the study of psychology. While at Wesleyan Judd renounced all religion and replaced it with a lifelong allegiance to science. Throughout his life, however, he maintained a forceful evangelical speaking style that reflected his pietistic upbringing....

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Kessen, William (18 January 1925–13 February 1999), psychologist, educator, and historian, was born in Key West, Florida, the only child of Maria Lord Kessen, a third generation Key Wester, and Herman Kessen of Georgia, a ship's engineer with the Peninsular and Occidental Steamship line. The family moved to Fort Lauderdale when Kessen was ten; he graduated from high school at the precocious age of sixteen. The first in his family to attend college, Kessen pursued a variety of interests at the University of Florida, including history, acting, and radio announcing, but his undergraduate studies were interrupted by the outbreak of World War II....

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Murray, Henry Alexander, Jr. (13 May 1893–23 June 1988), biochemist, clinical psychologist, and Melville scholar, was born in New York City, the son of Henry Alexander Murray, Sr., a Scotsman who rose from impoverished circumstances to become a successful investor, and Fannie Morris Babcock, a New York socialite and daughter of eminent financier Samuel Denison Babcock, the founder of the Guaranty Trust Company. Spending the school year in Manhattan and summers on Long Island, Murray grew up in quiet and well-to-do circumstances as the middle of three children. The only apparent anomalies of his youth were an inordinate attachment to his mother, a mild stutter, and strabismus, or slight crossing of the eyes, a condition only partially corrected through a dramatic and somewhat spontaneous operation by a physician on the family dining room table while he was still a boy....

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Norsworthy, Naomi (29 September 1877–25 December 1916), psychologist and educator, was born in New York City, the daughter of Samuel B. Norsworthy, a mechanical engineer, and Eve Ann Modridge. Norsworthy’s parents had emigrated from England a few years before her birth. Her mother was a member of the Plymouth Brethren and instilled the values of simplicity, organization, discipline, and service in her children. Norsworthy, who never married, maintained a close relationship with her mother throughout her life....

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Robinson, Edward Stevens (18 April 1893–27 February 1937), psychologist and educator, was born in Lebanon, Ohio, the son of Clinton Cooke Robinson and Carrie Isabella Stevens. He attended the University of Cincinnati, where he majored in psychology, earning his A.B. in 1916. He earned his A.M. in psychology one year later at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1917 Robinson was accepted for doctoral work in psychology at the University of Chicago, where he worked with ...

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Teuber, Hans-Lukas (07 August 1916–04 January 1977), neuropsychologist and educator, was born in Berlin, the son of Eugen Teuber, a psychologist, and Rose Knopf, a teacher. In 1913 Teuber’s father had established the first station for the behavioral observation of anthropoid apes on Tenerife, Canary Islands, where ...