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Burrow, Trigant (07 September 1875–24 May 1950), psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and phylobiologist, was born in Norfolk, Virginia, the son of John W. Burrow, a wholesale pharmacist, and Anastasia Devereux. His Protestant father was widely read in science and a freethinker. His devoutly Roman Catholic mother was intelligent, cultured, and moody. A painful rift between the parents exposed the son to human conflict and may have been an important background factor to his lifelong sensitive study of human interrelationships. The youngest of four children, Burrow was painfully affected by the death of his sister when he was twelve years old....

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Healy, William (29 January 1869–15 March 1963), psychiatrist, medical psychologist, and pioneer in the field of juvenile delinquency, was born in Buckinghamshire, England, the son of a farmer and brickmaker. He was the youngest of four children. His family emigrated to the United States when he was nine, and at age fourteen he dropped out of school to work as a clerk in a local Chicago bank in order to help support his family. He worked at this job for ten years, during which time he read widely, availed himself of the local public library, and, with the encouragement of numerous individuals who saw his potential, became a self-taught intellectual. During this time he fell under the influence of the Reverend ...

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Hilgard, Josephine Rohrs (12 March 1906–16 May 1989), psychologist and psychiatrist, was born in Napoleon, Ohio, the daughter of Henry F. Rohrs, a practicing physician and surgeon, and Edna Irene Balsley. Her subsequent education after high school led to an A.B., magna cum laude, from Smith College (1928); an M.A. (1930) and a Ph.D. (1933) from Yale University in child psychology; and an M.D. from Stanford University Medical School (1940). This education was followed by psychoanalytic training at the Chicago Psychoanalytic Institute in Washington, D.C., and at the Washington-Baltimore Psychoanalytic Institute, completed in 1946. Each of her academic degrees led to honor society membership: Smith, Phi Beta Kappa; Yale, Sigma Xi; Stanford, Alpha Omega Alpha....

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Sidis, Boris (12 October 1867–24 October 1923), psychologist, physician, and pioneer in the field of psychopathology, was born in Kiev, Russia, the son of Moses Sidis, a well-to-do merchant and intellectual, and Mary Marmor, both Ukranian Jews. Under his father’s tutelage, Boris showed early intellectual promise, developing an interest in poetry, languages, and history. During the czarist pogroms against the Jews in the 1880s, he was arrested for teaching peasants how to read and write. He spent two years in solitary confinement and withstood beating and torture before his father was able to secure his freedom. He immediately escaped from Russia and went, nearly penniless, to New York in 1887. While tutoring Russian immigrants, he met Sarah Mandelbaum. In 1891 Sidis went on to Boston, where Mandelbaum soon joined him. She enrolled at the Boston University Medical School, and he continued to work and study. At her urging, he qualified to enter Harvard as a special student in 1892, and he received an A.B. in 1894. Also in 1894 he married Mandelbaum; they had two children....