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Albright, Fuller (12 January 1900–08 December 1969), endocrinologist, was born in Buffalo, New York, the son of John Joseph Albright, an industrialist and philanthropist, and Susan Fuller. Fuller Albright came from a patrician background; he attended Nichols Day School, one of two schools founded by his father. He showed himself to be a well-rounded scholar and athlete, matriculating at Harvard College at age sixteen. He volunteered to join the U.S. Army during World War I and at officer’s training school contracted influenza, a likely forerunner of the postencephalitic Parkinsonism that progressively impaired his functioning in later years. He attended Harvard Medical School and began his residency training at the Massachusetts General Hospital, the institution where he remained throughout his career except for two sabbatical years, one spent in Vienna and the other at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore. He married Claire Birge in 1933; they had two children....

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Allen, Edgar (02 May 1892–03 March 1943), endocrinologist and physiologist, was born in Canyon City, Colorado, the son of Asa Allen, a physician and Edith Day. In 1900 the family relocated to Providence, Rhode Island, where Allen grew up. After the death of his father, when Allen was in his early teens, his mother supported the family by working as a librarian and with the help of her children, who held a succession of odd jobs. Allen supported himself through Brown University by waiting on tables, tending furnaces, and teaching swimming among other things. Upon graduating in 1915, he entered the graduate school, from which he received an M.A. in biology with special emphasis on embryology in 1916, after which he continued on for his Ph.D. World War I intervened, however, and he left for France, where he served with a mobile unit of the Sanitary Corps. Allen married Marion Robins Pfeiffer, then a student at Pembroke, the women’s college of Brown, in 1918; the couple had two daughters....

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Astwood, Edwin Bennett (29 December 1909–17 February 1976), physiologist and endocrinologist, was born in Hamilton, Bermuda, the son of Earnest Millard Astwood, a jeweler, watchmaker, and optometrist, and Imogene Doe. Astwood spent his childhood and received his early education in Bermuda, where his family had a longstanding business interest. Because of his family’s religious ties, Astwood was sent to Washington Missionary College in Ohio. Deciding to study medicine after receiving his college degree in 1929, Astwood attended the Medical College of Evangelists at Loma Linda University in Loma Linda, California....

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Harry Benjamin. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B02717).

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Benjamin, Harry (12 January 1885–24 August 1986), physician, endocrinologist, and sex researcher, was born in Berlin, Germany, the son of Julius Benjamin, a banker, and Bertha Hoffman. He became interested in human sexuality at the age of twenty, when he read August Forel’s ...

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Corner, George Washington (12 December 1889–28 September 1981), anatomist, endocrinologist, and medical historian, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, the son of George Washington Corner II, a merchant, and Florence Evans. He attended the Boys Latin School, from which he graduated with honors in six subjects, and entered the Johns Hopkins University in 1906. His original intention was to study languages. Within a year, however, he discovered he was more inclined to biological studies. In 1909 he graduated with an A.B. and entered the Johns Hopkins Medical School. Corner’s years at Johns Hopkins were those of the great founders, ...

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Evans, Herbert McLean (23 September 1882–06 March 1971), medical researcher, was born in Modesto, California, the son of Clayburn Wayne Evans, a physician, and Bessie McLean. In the public high school Evans enjoyed literature and history as well as science but was directed into medicine by his parents. At the University of California at Berkeley he took courses in science after the two-year premedical course, and in his senior year he enjoyed a field trip to Idaho with paleontologist ...

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Hoskins, Roy Graham (03 July 1880–05 November 1964), biomedical investigator, was born in Nevinville, Iowa, the son of William Henry Hoskins, a tradesman, and Sarah Graham. As a child, Roy moved by covered wagon with his family to Broken Bow, Nebraska, where newly turned sod became the family’s shelter and livelihood. Parental teaching, extensive Bible reading, and “The Youth’s Companion” were his sole sources of enlightenment. When Roy was seven the Hoskinses moved to Mullen, Nebraska, but failing family fortunes prompted another move to Fairfield, Nebraska—over land that was unsurveyed and populated with grouse, prairie chickens, and pronghorns, much to Roy’s fascination. In Mullens, Hoskins was gainfully employed collecting buffalo bones to be used as boneblack in making sugar. In Fairfield his father returned to carpentry and Hoskins got his first experience with formal education. The outcome was a straight-A record throughout five years of high school, which in 1900 enabled him to matriculate at the University of Kansas. There Hoskins had the good fortune to be associated with seven of this country’s most prominent naturalists in both the plant and animal sciences. He also took part in a variety of extracurricular activities, winning the pentathlon and singing with many different groups. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa with an A.B. in 1905....

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David Y. Cooper and Michelle E. Osborn

Long, Cyril Norman Hugh (19 June 1901–06 July 1970), endocrinologist, was born in Wiltshire, England, the son of John Long, a civil servant, and Rose Fanny Langdill. Long spent many of his early years in the town of Wigan, near Manchester, and received his early education at the Wigan Grammar School. A voracious reader with an interest in history and literature, Long was a fan of Jules Verne and later shared a friendship with Joseph Conrad. Having varied interests, Long played soccer and cricket, built model buildings, and was a skilled amateur photographer. After completing grammar school, Long entered the Honors School of Chemistry at Manchester University, receiving a thorough education in inorganic and organic chemistry. He graduated with a B.S. in 1921, preparing his first two publications on the Friedel-Crafts reaction. While at the university, Long was recruited to work on a chemistry experiment in physiology professor A. V. Hill’s laboratory, where he discovered his life’s work....

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Moore, Carl Richard (05 December 1892–16 October 1955), endocrinologist, was born in Brighton, Missouri, the son of Jonathan Newton Moore and Sarah Frances Harris, farmers. At the age of nine he moved with his family to nearby Springfield, where he grew up. He matriculated at Drury College in Springfield and paid his tuition by working as a janitor, window washer, and paperboy. Although he had originally planned to become a physician, he soon developed such an interest in conducting laboratory experiments that he decided to become a biologist instead. After receiving his B.S. degree in 1913, he remained at Drury as a laboratory instructor while working toward his M.S. degree, which he received the next year. He then enrolled at the University of Chicago, where he studied and taught zoology and spent his summers conducting research at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. He received his Ph.D. degree in zoology in 1916....

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Papanicolaou, George Nicholas (13 May 1883–19 February 1962), anatomist, oncologist, and endocrinologist, was born in Coumi (or Kyme), Greece, the son of Nicholas Papanicolaou, a physician, and Mary Critsutas. After early schooling in Coumi, he attended Gymnasium in Athens and then studied medicine at the University of Athens. After receiving his M.D. degree in 1904, he completed his mandatory military service (1904–1906). He returned to Coumi, where he joined his father briefly in the practice of medicine, before leaving for further education in Germany. In 1910 he received the Ph.D. in zoology at Munich. His thesis, entitled “Sex Determination and Sex Differentiation,” had been completed under the supervision of ...

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Pincus, Gregory Goodwin (09 April 1903–22 August 1967), endocrinologist, was born in Woodbine, New Jersey, the son of Joseph W. Pincus, a teacher and farm journal editor, and Elizabeth F. Lipman. Pincus received a B.S. from Cornell University in 1924 and an M.S. and Sc.D. in genetics and physiology form Harvard University in 1927. After spending three years in England and Germany as a National Research Council Fellow, he became a biology instructor at Harvard in 1930 and an assistant professor in 1931. In 1938, after spending a year as a visiting investigator at Cambridge University in England, he became a visiting professor of experimental zoology at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. He left Clark in 1945 to join the faculty at Tufts Medical College in Medford, Massachusetts, and in 1950 became a research professor in biology at Boston University, a position he held until his death....

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Russell, Jane Anne (09 February 1911–12 March 1967), endocrinologist, was born near Los Angeles, California, the daughter of Josiah Howard Russell, a rancher and deputy sheriff, and Mary Ann Phillips. She completed her early education in the public school system of Long Beach and received a B.A. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1932, graduating first in her class. During her first year as a graduate student at Berkeley she worked as a technician in the biochemistry department, and from 1934 to 1937 she worked as an assistant in the university’s Institute of Experimental Biology....

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Scharrer, Berta Vogel (01 December 1906–23 July 1995), cell biologist and pioneering neuroendocrinologist, was born Berta Vogel in Munich, Germany, the daughter of Karl Phillip Vogel, a prominent judge in the Bavarian state court, and Johanna Weiss. Berta grew up in happy circumstances at home and in school, and she showed an early interest in biology and in becoming a scientist. But after 1914 her life was shadowed by World War I, by Germany's defeat and economic chaos, and ultimately by the rise of Nazism, which gained an early foothold in Munich. Scharrer entered the University of Munich in the swale of Adolf Hitler's conspiracy to overthrow of the Bavarian government, and she graduated with a Ph.D. in 1930, as the Nazis came to national prominence....

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Timme, Walter (24 February 1874–12 February 1956), neurologist and endocrinologist, was born in New York City, the son of Frederick J. E. Timme, a Lutheran minister, and Emma Wirth. After graduating in 1893 from the City College of New York, Timme worked as a mathematics teacher before turning to biology. He enrolled in the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, from which he received an M.D. in 1897. Timme began a general practice, and in 1898 he joined the staff of Columbia’s Vanderbilt Clinic, where he had the opportunity to study nervous and mental diseases. He married Ida Helen Haar in 1901; they had no children....