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Archibald Bruce. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B03753).

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Bruce, Archibald ( February 1777–22 February 1818), physician, mineralogist, and editor, was born in New York City, the son of William Bruce, a British army medical officer, and Judith Bayard Van Rensselaer. Despite his father’s expressed wish, Bruce pursued medical education and practice. After taking an A.B. at Columbia College in 1797, he continued his studies in New York and then moved on to Edinburgh (M.D., 1800). As was common in this period, his medical education included exposure to the natural sciences, and Bruce developed a lifelong interest in mineralogy. After completing his M.D., he extended his European stay with travels on the Continent to study mineralogy and collect materials for his own mineralogical cabinet....

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Harris, Seale (13 March 1870–16 March 1957), physician and medical writer and editor, was born in Cedartown, Georgia, the son of Charles Hooks Harris, a medical doctor, and Margaret Ann Monk. Harris received his early education in Cedartown and nearby Marietta, Georgia. During these years he often drove his father’s horse and buggy to the homes of patients, where the majority of his father’s practice occurred. At age nineteen he was rodman on a team of engineers surveying in South Carolina for what became the Seaboard Air Line Railroad Co. During this time Seale received a letter from his brother James, who along with two other brothers offered to lend him money to attend the University of Georgia and then to obtain a medical degree from the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City. He finished his two years at Georgia but was frightened away from New York by a cholera scare. He entered the University of Virginia medical school in 1892, living there in a room previously occupied by ...

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Kelly, Aloysius Oliver Joseph (13 June 1870–23 February 1911), physician, medical educator, and writer, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Joseph Vincent Kelly, a physician and superintendent of St. Mary’s Hospital, and Emma Jane Ferguson. Little is known about his childhood. He received his A.B. degree from LaSalle College, Philadelphia, in 1888 at the age of eighteen, and three years later the school awarded him a Master of Arts degree. After college he enrolled in the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, and he graduated with an M.D. in 1891. He was then appointed to a one-year residency at the St. Agnes Hospital in Philadelphia. From 1892 to 1894 he studied in Vienna, Heidelberg, Dublin, Prague, and London with such notable physicians as Franz Chvostek, Anton Weichselbaum, and Arnold Paltauf....

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Rice, Joseph Mayer (20 May 1857–24 June 1934), physician, journal editor, and education critic, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Mayer Rice, a private tutor of languages, and Fanny Sohn. Rice’s parents had emigrated from Bavaria in 1855 and had settled in the German community in Philadelphia. Rice attended public schools in Philadelphia until 1870, when the family moved to New York City. He finished his secondary education in the public school system there and then attended the City College of New York. In 1881 Rice received a degree in medicine from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. After practicing in local hospitals for a three-year period, in 1884 Rice established a successful private practice in pediatrics. During this period he became interested in the physical fitness programs offered by the New York City schools....

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Simmons, George Henry (02 January 1852–01 September 1937), physician, editor, and administrator, was born in Moreton-in-Marsh, Gloucestershire, England, the son of George Simmons and Sarah Louise Clifford, farmers. While son George was still a child his parents died, and he was brought up by his maternal grandfather. Seeking greater opportunities, George left England in 1870 and sailed to the United States, settling in the Midwest....