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Hart, Edwin Bret (25 December 1874–12 March 1953), biochemist and nutritionist, was born near Sandusky, Ohio, the son of William Hart and Mary Hess, farmers. Hart developed an interest in the natural sciences at Sandusky High School. In 1892 he entered the University of Michigan and became an assistant to the chemist E. D. Campbell, who had lost his eyesight in a laboratory explosion. Hart’s duties included reading to Campbell and taking him places by tandem bicycle. In 1897 he received a B.S. in chemistry and had his research published as coauthor with Campbell. He then became an assistant chemist at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, New York, performing routine food analyses for a year before being given the opportunity to work with Lucius Van Slyke on animal nutrition and dairy chemistry. In 1900 he took a two-year leave of absence to study for a Ph.D. with the protein chemist Albrecht Kossel at the University of Marburg in Germany. Kossel moved to Heidelberg in 1901, and Hart went with him. Heidelberg, however, would not accept the academic credits earned at Marburg. Unable to finish the degree requirements before returning to New York, Hart never obtained a Ph.D. From 1902 to 1906 he developed an outstanding reputation as a dairy chemist. In 1903 he married Ann Virginia De Mille, an actress and relative of ...

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Christian Archibald Herter. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B014736).

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Herter, Christian Archibald (03 September 1865–05 December 1910), physician and biochemist, was born in Glenville, Connecticut, the son of Christian Herter, an artist and highly successful interior decorator, and Mary Miles. He was educated privately under the direction of his father, who chose a medical career for him. Herter received an M.D. from Columbia University in 1885, after which he undertook postgraduate work with pathologist ...

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Rose, William Cumming (04 April 1887–25 September 1985), biochemist and nutritionist, was born in Greenville, South Carolina, the son of John McAden Rose, a Presbyterian minister, and Mary Evans Santos. Rose’s family moved to North Carolina in 1881, living first in Morganton, then in Laurenberg. In Laurenberg, when he was twelve, Rose was placed in the Quackenbush School, but after two years his father found his son’s instruction was inadequate and decided to teach him at home. In this isolated environment, Rose’s father thoroughly drilled him in Greek, Latin, and Hebrew. While Rose was receiving this classical education, he began reading ...

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Wilkerson, Vernon Alexander (21 August 1901–24 May 1968), biochemist, educator, and physician, was born in Fort Scott, Kansas, and grew up in Kansas City, Missouri. His parents’ names and occupations are unknown. After attending Sumner High School in Kansas City (1913–1917), he entered the University of Kansas, where he majored in chemistry and graduated with an A.B. in 1921. He stayed an additional year at Kansas before attending the medical school of the University of Iowa, Iowa City, where he earned the M.D. in 1925. During his medical studies, he listed his place of residence as Council Bluffs, Iowa. Next came a year of internship at Kansas City General Hospital No. 2, followed by a one-year appointment as house surgeon at Wheatley-Provident Hospital, also in Kansas City. These hospitals, located in a racially segregated city, served the African-American community exclusively and provided one of the few means available anywhere in the country for black medical graduates to acquire postgraduate training....