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Dunham, Carroll (29 October 1828–18 February 1876), physician and educator, was born in New York City, the son of Edward Wood Dunham, a prosperous commission merchant and the first president of New York’s Corn Exchange Bank, and Maria Smyth Parker. Dunham’s mother died during the cholera epidemic of 1834, when Dunham was six years of age....

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Christopher Ellithorp

Gram, Hans Burch (13 July 1787–26 February 1840), physician, was born Hans Benjamin Gramm in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Hans Gram, secretary to the Danish governor of Santa Cruz, and Jane Burdick. After the death of his parents, he left Boston in 1806 or 1807 to claim his grandfather’s estate in Copenhagen, Denmark. Gram obtained a portion of the estate that allowed him to secure an education. Through the favor of his uncle, a Dr. Fenger, physician to the Danish king, he became a student at the Royal Medical and Surgical Institute. Fenger also provided him entrée to other schools and hospitals in northern Europe....

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Guernsey, Egbert (08 July 1823–19 September 1903), homeopathic physician, was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, the son of John Guernsey and Amanda Crosby. His education at Phillips Andover Academy prepared him for a year’s work teaching, after which he took a year’s scientific course at Yale College. He began the study of medicine with ...

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Hale, Edwin Moses (02 February 1829–15 January 1899), homeopathic physician, was born in Newport, New Hampshire, the son of Syene Hale, a physician, and Betsy Dow. In 1836 the family moved to Fredonia, Ohio, where Hale attended public school until the age of fifteen, when he removed to Newark, Ohio, to learn printing. He became associate editor of the local newspaper and, briefly, deputy postmaster. He then gave up journalism for the study of law....

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Hempel, Charles Julius (05 September 1811–24 September 1879), homeopathic physician, was born in Solingen, Germany. Little is known of his parentage and early life. After completing his college education, Hempel was compelled to take the Prussian military examination, which he passed, enabling him to defer service until age twenty-four. He took the opportunity to study at the Collège de France and the University of Paris, supporting himself by translating. He attended lectures by chemist Joseph Gay-Lussac, physician François Broussais, and Jules Michelet. Hempel lived with Michelet’s family for six months while assisting the historian with his ...

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Hering, Constantine (01 January 1800–23 July 1880), homeopathic physician and educator, was born in Oschatz, Saxony, the son of Christian Gottlieb Karl Hering, a school headmaster and church organist, and Christiane Friedericke Kreutzberg. After receiving “classical schooling” in Zittau, Saxony, he began studying medicine in Dresden in 1817. While taking courses in medicine at the University of Leipzig in 1820, he was asked by his teacher to write a paper denouncing homeopathic medicine (a system of therapeutics developed by Samuel Hahnemann, based on the principle that a substance that is capable of causing symptoms in a healthy person is capable of curing similar symptoms when they occur as a part of a natural illness). Hering investigated the system and became convinced of its efficacy. He transferred to the University of Wurzburg and received his medical degree in 1826. Hering worked for a short time as a teacher of mathematics and natural sciences in Dresden. An avid naturalist and botanist, he was commissioned as a naturalist by the king of Saxony and was sent to Surinam to collect specimens. After contributing articles to several homeopathic journals in Europe, Hering was asked by the king to cease his involvement in medicine while in Surinam. In response to this request, Hering resigned his commission and stayed on to practice medicine. He remained in Surinam until 1833, at which time he was invited to join a colleague in the United States and settled in Philadelphia....

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Kent, James Tyler (31 March 1849–05 June 1916), homeopathic physician and educator, was born in Woodhull, New York, the son of Stephen Kent, a town clerk, and Carolyn Tyler. Evidence suggests that he was actually the illegitimate son of his brother Henry and sister Jane, since they were listed as “mother” and “father” on his death certificate. Kent earned a Ph.B. (1868) and A.M. (1870) at Madison College (now Colgate University) in Hamilton, New York. He studied medicine with a Dr. Brown in Woodhull and completed his medical degree in 1871 at the Eclectic Medical Institute in Cincinnati Ohio, one of the many “non-traditional” medical schools that flourished during the late 1880s. In 1874 Kent moved to St. Louis, Missouri, where he began a medical practice and taught as professor of anatomy in the American Medical College (Eclectic) in 1877–1878....

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Leach, Robert Boyd (1822–29 July 1863), physician, was born in Virginia to free blacks (names unknown) and moved to Jackson County, Ohio, with his family when he was about five years old. Leach arrived sometime between 1836 and 1844 in Cleveland, where he found seasonal work on the lake steamers....

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Merrick, Myra King (15 August 1825–10 November 1899), physician and educator, was born in Hinckley, Leicestershire, England, the daughter of Richard King, a brickmaker, and Elizabeth (maiden name unknown). In 1826 the family emigrated to the United States and settled in Taunton, Massachusetts. At the age of eight, Myra began working in Taunton’s textile mills, helping to support a family that now numbered five children. In 1841 the family moved to Cleveland, Ohio, where she secured employment as a nurse to several physicians in the area and developed an interest in medicine as a profession. After her marriage to builder and machinist Charles H. Merrick in 1848, the couple moved to Connecticut, where she began the study of medicine under New Haven physicians Eli Ives, professor of theory and practice of medicine at Yale University, and his obstetrician son, Levi Ives....

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Talbot, Israel Tisdale (29 October 1829–02 July 1899), homeopathic physician and educator, was born in Sharon, Massachusetts, the son of Josiah Talbot, Jr., and Mary Richards, farmers. Resisting family pressure to become a farmer, he left Sharon in September 1844 for Baltimore, where a sister lived; here he conducted a home school for neighborhood children. Returning to New England in July 1845, he taught at various schools and in 1850 graduated from Worcester Academy in Massachusetts....

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Wesselhoeft, Conrad (23 March 1834–17 December 1904), physician and educator, was born in Weimar, Germany, the son of Robert Wesselhoeft and Ferdinanda Emilia Hecker. His father, who became a physician after leaving Prussia, had been a lawyer in Weimar and an officer of the government. Robert Wesselhoeft’s liberal principles and support for German unification resulted in his expulsion from Weimar, and he immigrated to the United States with his family in 1840, eventually settling in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Wesselhoeft’s father and uncle William Wesselhoeft, M.D., founded the Brattleboro, Vermont, water cure establishment in 1846....