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Simon Baruch. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B01386).

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Baruch, Simon (29 July 1840–03 June 1921), physician and sanitarian, was born in Schwersenz, Prussia, to Polish Jews Bernhard Baruch and Theresa Gruen. His parents’ occupations are unknown. He attended the Royal Friedrich Wilhelm Gymnasium in Posen for about seven years before emigrating to the United States in 1855 and settling in Camden, South Carolina, in 1859. In Camden, he apprenticed himself to Drs. Thomas J. Workman and Lynch Horry Deas. Baruch attended the Medical College of South Carolina in Charleston in 1860–1861 and completed his education at the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond in 1862, after the South Carolina school closed at the outbreak of the Civil War. His college expenses were paid by Mannes Baum, a family friend from Schwersenz, who had sponsored his emigration in 1855. Baruch became a U.S. citizen on 19 January 1871....

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Buchanan, Joseph Rodes (11 December 1814–26 December 1899), physician and author, was born in Frankfort, Kentucky, the son of Joseph Buchanan, a physician, and Nancy Rodes Garth. His father had a varied career as a physician and journalist and was one of the first faculty members at Transylvania University in Lexington. Upon his father’s death in 1829, Buchanan worked as both a printer and schoolteacher in Lexington. In 1835 he became acquainted with the “science” of phrenology formulated by the European investigators, Franz Joseph Gall and Johann Gaspar Spurzheim. Buchanan found phrenology to be a promising technique for investigating humanity’s moral and intellectual capacities and resolved to further his studies by entering medical school at the University of Louisville....

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Charles Caldwell. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B04072).

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Caldwell, Charles (14 May 1772–09 July 1853), physician, author, and teacher, was born in Caswell County, North Carolina, the son of Charles Caldwell, a farmer. His mother’s maiden name was Murray, although her given name is unknown. Caldwell’s father was an elder in the Presbyterian church and wanted Charles to become a minister. Accordingly, from the age of eleven to fourteen, Caldwell studied Latin and classical literature at a Latin school operated by Dominie Harris in Mecklenburg County. By the time Caldwell left Harris’s school, however, he had decided against a religious career....

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Andrew Taylor Still Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-111668).

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Still, Andrew Taylor (06 August 1828–12 December 1917), physician and founder of osteopathy, was born in Jonesville, Virginia, the son of Abraham Still, a Methodist minister and physician, and Martha Poage Moore. Still’s father held various church appointments on the western frontier, and the family eventually settled in Baldwin, Kansas. Still’s early education was interrupted by these moves, but he received some formal schooling in classrooms and through tutors until the age of twenty. Although he subsequently studied medicine with his father, he never attended a medical school before starting his practice as a physician in the 1850s. In 1849 he met and married Mary Margaret Vaughan; they had five children....