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Barber, Jesse Max (05 July 1878–23 September 1949), African-American journalist, dentist, and civil rights activist, was born in Blackstock, South Carolina, the son of Jesse Max Barber and Susan Crawford, former slaves. Barber studied in public schools for African-American students and at Friendship Institute in Rock Hill, South Carolina, where he graduated as valedictorian. In 1901 he completed the normal school course for teachers at Benedict College in Columbia, South Carolina, and afterward entered Virginia Union University in Richmond. There Barber was president of the literary society and edited the ...

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Archibald Bruce. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B03753).

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Bruce, Archibald ( February 1777–22 February 1818), physician, mineralogist, and editor, was born in New York City, the son of William Bruce, a British army medical officer, and Judith Bayard Van Rensselaer. Despite his father’s expressed wish, Bruce pursued medical education and practice. After taking an A.B. at Columbia College in 1797, he continued his studies in New York and then moved on to Edinburgh (M.D., 1800). As was common in this period, his medical education included exposure to the natural sciences, and Bruce developed a lifelong interest in mineralogy. After completing his M.D., he extended his European stay with travels on the Continent to study mineralogy and collect materials for his own mineralogical cabinet....

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James McKeen Cattell [left to right] Herbert E. Ives and James McKeen Cattell, 1934. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-114340).

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Cattell, James McKeen (25 May 1860–20 January 1944), psychologist and editor, was born in Easton, Pennsylvania, the son of William C. Cattell, a Presbyterian minister and president of Lafayette College in Easton, and Elizabeth McKeen, the daughter of James McKeen, the college’s most generous benefactor. Cattell grew up as the scion of Easton’s leading family, and even as a student at Lafayette (A.B., 1880) he came to expect the deference of others. His family’s closeness led him to study the ethics of Comtean positivism, which idealized the mother’s sacrifice in childbirth as the model of all altruistic behavior. At Lafayette, the teaching of philologist Francis Andrew March—especially March’s emphasis on the philosophy of Francis Bacon—impressed him. Cattell developed an approach to science that combined a Comtean emphasis on quantification with a Baconian appreciation for the hypothesis-free collection of empirical “facts” and the usefulness of science. Throughout his career he adopted methods that produced quantitative data about psychological phenomena, even if he often could not explain them....

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Gaillard, Edwin Samuel (16 January 1827–02 February 1885), medical educator and editor, was born near Charleston, South Carolina, the son of Edwin Gaillard and Mary White. He received a B.A. from South Carolina College (later the University of South Carolina) in 1845 and an M.D. from the Medical College of the State of South Carolina (now part of the University of South Carolina) in 1854. He then moved to Florida, where he opened a general medical practice. In 1856 he married Jane Marshall Thomas, with whom he had no children. He relocated his practice to New York City the following year but closed it in 1860 after his wife’s death. He then studied medicine for a year in Europe and in 1861 settled in Baltimore, Maryland....

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George Milbry Gould. Courtesy of the Clendening History of Medicine Library, University of Kansas Medical Center.

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Gould, George Milbry (08 November 1848–08 August 1922), medical editor and writer, was born in Auburn, Maine, the son of George Thomas Gould and Eliza A. Lapham, professions unknown. His mother died when he was very young, and he moved with his father and stepmother to Salina, Ohio. He received his early education in the Salina public schools. In 1861, at the start of the Civil War, he enlisted in the Sixty-third Ohio Volunteers of the Union army as a drummer boy. He served for eighteen months before he was discharged because of illness. In 1864 he enlisted as a soldier in the 141st Ohio Volunteers and was discharged when the war ended. He attended Ohio Wesleyan University and graduated in 1873 with an A.B. To pay for his undergraduate education, Gould worked as a compositor in a printing shop. He left Ohio, entered the Harvard Divinity School, and graduated in 1874 with a bachelor of sacred theology degree, followed by postgraduate studies in Paris, Leipzig, and Berlin....

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Harris, Seale (13 March 1870–16 March 1957), physician and medical writer and editor, was born in Cedartown, Georgia, the son of Charles Hooks Harris, a medical doctor, and Margaret Ann Monk. Harris received his early education in Cedartown and nearby Marietta, Georgia. During these years he often drove his father’s horse and buggy to the homes of patients, where the majority of his father’s practice occurred. At age nineteen he was rodman on a team of engineers surveying in South Carolina for what became the Seaboard Air Line Railroad Co. During this time Seale received a letter from his brother James, who along with two other brothers offered to lend him money to attend the University of Georgia and then to obtain a medical degree from the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City. He finished his two years at Georgia but was frightened away from New York by a cholera scare. He entered the University of Virginia medical school in 1892, living there in a room previously occupied by ...

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Ingelfinger, Franz Joseph (20 August 1910–26 March 1980), research physician and editor, was born in Dresden, Germany, the son of Joseph Ingelfinger, an assistant professor of bacteriology at the University of Göttingen, and Eleanor Holden, an American schoolteacher. In 1922 the family moved to Boston, Massachusetts, where Ingelfinger’s parents encouraged him in literary pursuits, and he helped his mother tutor students in English. After attending Phillips Andover Academy in New Hampshire, Ingelfinger entered Yale University. There he majored in English, played on the football team, took premedical courses in his senior year, and received an A.B. in 1932. He became a U.S. citizen in 1931....

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Jelliffe, Smith Ely (27 October 1886–25 September 1945), neurologist, psychoanalyst, and medical editor, was born in New York City, the son of William Munson Jelliffe and Susan Emma Kitchell, both teachers. Jelliffe entered the civil engineering program at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute and left without graduating in 1886 to enroll in the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City. He received his M.D. with honors in 1889 and interned for a year at St. Mary’s Hospital, Brooklyn, after which he traveled to Europe for a year. There he studied medicine and botany and visited cultural and historical sites. On his return in 1891, Jelliffe opened a general practice in his parents’ home in Brooklyn. To pay off his debts he did part-time clinical and pathological work in a hospital. His botanical studies in Europe had also qualified him to be a sanitary inspector for the Brooklyn Board of Health and to teach materia medica and botany at the Brooklyn College of Pharmacy at night. In 1894 Jelliffe married his longtime fiancée, Helena Dewey Leeming. The couple moved to New York City where they had five children. A year after his wife’s sudden death in 1916, he married Belinda Dobson; they had no children....

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Kelly, Aloysius Oliver Joseph (13 June 1870–23 February 1911), physician, medical educator, and writer, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Joseph Vincent Kelly, a physician and superintendent of St. Mary’s Hospital, and Emma Jane Ferguson. Little is known about his childhood. He received his A.B. degree from LaSalle College, Philadelphia, in 1888 at the age of eighteen, and three years later the school awarded him a Master of Arts degree. After college he enrolled in the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, and he graduated with an M.D. in 1891. He was then appointed to a one-year residency at the St. Agnes Hospital in Philadelphia. From 1892 to 1894 he studied in Vienna, Heidelberg, Dublin, Prague, and London with such notable physicians as Franz Chvostek, Anton Weichselbaum, and Arnold Paltauf....

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Franklin Henry Martin. Courtesy of the Clendening History of Medicine Library, University of Kansas Medical Center.

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Martin, Franklin Henry (13 July 1857–07 March 1935), surgeon, organizer, and editor, was born on a farm near Ixonia, Wisconsin, the son of Edmond Martin and Josephine Carlin, farmers. Martin’s father died in the Union army in 1862. Five years later his mother remarried, and young Martin was put under the care of his maternal grandparents. After passing the teacher’s examination, he taught at several village schools....

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Mathews, Joseph McDowell (26 May 1847–02 December 1928), surgeon and medical editor, was born in New Castle, Henry County, Kentucky, the son of Caleb M. Mathews, a lawyer and jurist, and Frances S. Edwards. Educated at the New Castle Academy, Mathews began his medical preceptorship in his home town under his brother-in-law, William B. Oldham. Beginning in 1865 he attended two sessions of medical lectures at the Kentucky School of Medicine in Louisville, Kentucky, obtaining his M.D. in 1867 from the University of Louisville Medical Department, during a brief consolidation of the schools. Following graduation he returned home and began the general practice of medicine with his former preceptor. He remained there for five years, but desiring to practice in a larger community, he moved to Louisville. He married Sallie E. Berry of Midway, Woodford County, Kentucky, in 1877; they had no children....

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McQuillen, John Hugh (12 February 1826–03 March 1879), dentist, editor, and educator, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Hugh McQuillen and Martha Scattergood, occupations unknown. He attended the Friends’ School and worked as a youth as a clerk in an importing firm. In 1847 he began the study of medicine and became particularly interested in dentistry. He studied with Elisha Townsend, a noted Philadelphia dentist, and in 1849 went into dental practice. He continued his medical studies and in 1852 received the M.D. from Jefferson Medical College. That same year he married Amelia Donnel Schellenger. They had five children, one of whom died in infancy. From 1852 to 1861 he was associated with Daniel Neall, another well-known Philadelphia dentist, and then returned to private practice....

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Rice, Charles (04 October 1841–13 May 1901), pharmacist, journalist, and linguist, was born in Munich, Germany, the son of Austrian parents with the surname of Reis. He claimed to have changed his name to Rice when he came to the United States in 1862. Because Rice was intensely secretive about his personal life, especially his past, few details are known about his family or early education other than that he received intense instruction in classical and modern languages while in Germany and at the age of twelve began a lifelong study of Sanskrit. When family finances became tight, Rice followed the advice of an uncle who had emigrated to the United States and turned to more practical studies of science. On the death of his parents and in the face of continuing economic difficulties, Rice came to the United States, where he joined the U.S. Navy in 1862....

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Rice, Joseph Mayer (20 May 1857–24 June 1934), physician, journal editor, and education critic, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Mayer Rice, a private tutor of languages, and Fanny Sohn. Rice’s parents had emigrated from Bavaria in 1855 and had settled in the German community in Philadelphia. Rice attended public schools in Philadelphia until 1870, when the family moved to New York City. He finished his secondary education in the public school system there and then attended the City College of New York. In 1881 Rice received a degree in medicine from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. After practicing in local hospitals for a three-year period, in 1884 Rice established a successful private practice in pediatrics. During this period he became interested in the physical fitness programs offered by the New York City schools....

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Shinn, Milicent Washburn (15 April 1858–13 August 1940), writer, editor, and psychologist, was born in Niles, California, the daughter of James Shinn and Lucy Ellen Clark, who operated a farm and tree nursery. Following high school graduation in 1874 she enrolled at the University of California and, after taking a leave of absence to acquire necessary funds by public school teaching, received her A.B. in 1880....

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Simmons, George Henry (02 January 1852–01 September 1937), physician, editor, and administrator, was born in Moreton-in-Marsh, Gloucestershire, England, the son of George Simmons and Sarah Louise Clifford, farmers. While son George was still a child his parents died, and he was brought up by his maternal grandfather. Seeking greater opportunities, George left England in 1870 and sailed to the United States, settling in the Midwest....