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Barnard, Chester Irving (07 November 1886–07 June 1961), telephone executive, foundation president, and management theorist, was born in Malden, Massachusetts, the son of Charles H. Barnard, a machinist, and Mary E. Putnam. His mother died when Chester was five. Apprenticed as a piano tuner, he worked his way through preparatory school at Mount Hermon Academy in Northfield, Massachusetts, and won a scholarship to Harvard, where he supplemented his income by tuning pianos and running a small dance band. He studied economics and languages but failed to receive a degree because he lacked a laboratory science course, which he felt he could not complete and yet “do all the work I had to do to eat.” In 1909 he was employed by American Telephone and Telegraph Corporation (AT&T) in the statistical department, studying the rate-setting practices of European telephone companies. He married Grace Frances Noera in 1911. They had one child....

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Morris Cooke [left to right] Morris Cooke and H. H. Bennett, 1936. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USF34-005269-E).

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Cooke, Morris Llewellyn (11 May 1872–05 March 1960), consulting management engineer, was born in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, one of eight children born to William Harvey Cooke, a physician, and Elizabeth Richmond Marsden. Morris Cook attended Lehigh University, where he obtained a degree in mechanical engineering in 1895. At age twenty-eight Cooke married Eleanor Bushnell Davis, an heiress who shared his progressive political views. They had no children....

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Kimball, George Elbert (12 July 1906–06 December 1967), physical chemist and operations research specialist, was born in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Arthur Gooch Kimball, a cutlery salesman, and Effie Gertrude Smallen, a former elementary school teacher. His family moved to New Britain, Connecticut, when he was three years old after his father was promoted and reassigned to corporate headquarters. He attended the local public schools and completed one year at Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire before matriculating at Princeton University in 1924. Although technically a chemistry major, he also took a number of courses in physics and mathematics and received his B.S. in 1928, his A.M. in 1929, and his Ph.D. in quantum chemistry in 1932....

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Alfred C. Kinsey. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-92226).

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Kinsey, Alfred Charles (23 June 1894–25 August 1956), entomologist and sex researcher, was born in Hoboken, New Jersey, the son of Alfred Seguine Kinsey, instructor of mechanical arts at Stevens Institute of Technology, and Sarah Ann Charles. His father, a domineering and relentlessly pious patriarch, intimidated Sarah and the children. Alfred was a frail boy who contracted rheumatic and typhoid fever. Perhaps as compensation for his early confinement to the home, in adolescence Alfred acquired a passionate interest in nature and resolved to become a biologist. He was valedictorian of the Columbia High School class of 1912....

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Lotka, Alfred James (02 March 1880–05 December 1949), statistician and demographer, was born in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary (now Lwiw, Ukraine), the son of Jacques Lotka and Marie Doebely, religious missionaries who, although American citizens, lived most of their lives in Europe. Lotka’s boyhood was spent in France and Germany. He attended the University of Birmingham (England), receiving his B.Sc. in 1901. He was broadly interested in physics, chemistry, and biology, and even at this period saw mathematical links between phenomena conventionally studied in independent disciplines....

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Rice, Stuart Arthur (21 November 1889–04 June 1969), sociologist, statistician, and government administrator, was born in Wadena, Minnesota, the son of Edward Myron Rice and Ida Emelin Hicks. He graduated from high school in Puyallup, Washington, in 1907, enrolled at the University of Washington, and graduated in 1912. He was employed as a social worker in Washington state and New York City from 1913 through 1919 and received his masters degree in sociology in 1915 from the University of Washington. In 1914 Rice married Chimeta Williamson; the couple had one son. Rice received his doctorate from Columbia in 1924....

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Sanderson, Ezra Dwight (25 September 1878–27 September 1944), rural sociologist and entomologist, was born in Clio, Michigan, the son of John Phillip Sanderson, a Congregational minister, and Alice Gertrude Wright. Signing his name E. Dwight in his early adult years, Sanderson later dropped the initial. He graduated from the Michigan Agricultural College with a bachelor of science degree in 1897. A second B.S. degree was earned in 1898 at Cornell University’s College of Agriculture with a specialization in entomology. From 1915 to 1918 he was a graduate student in sociology at the University of Chicago, receiving the Ph.D. degree in 1921. In 1899 he married Anna Cecilia Blandford, a rural schoolteacher who had been raised on a Maryland farm; they had one child....

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Taylor, Frederick Winslow (20 March 1856–21 March 1915), engineer and industrial manager, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Franklin Taylor, a lawyer, and Emily Winslow. Taylor’s parents, members of Quaker merchant families, were independently wealthy and devoted to the arts and philanthropy; their children had private tutors and attended exclusive schools. The Taylors’ contact with other wealthy Philadelphians included ties to the family of Edward W. Clark, the city’s most important investment banker. Frederick was particularly close to Clark’s son, Clarence M. Clark, who became his tennis partner (Taylor and Clark won the U.S. Lawn Tennis Association doubles championship in 1881), brother-in-law, and business adviser. Taylor’s later career as a management theorist and publicist was possible because of a fortune he made from Clark-inspired investments in West Virginia coal mines and other enterprises in the 1890s and afterward....

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Ward, Lester Frank (18 June 1841–18 April 1913), sociologist and geologist, was born in Joliet, Illinois, the son of Justus Ward, a mechanic, and Silence Loomis Rolph. His father was inventive as well as entrepreneurial and obtained contracts to build some of the locks on the canal that later would become part of the canal system connecting Lake Michigan with the Mississippi River. Ward spent his childhood working, roving, and playing along the banks of the Des Plaines and Fox rivers in Illinois, moving with his family to new mill sites. This was still frontier country, and he was able to get only fragments of formal schooling. At the age of eleven he worked at the sawmill near the village of St. Charles....