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Antony, Milton (07 August 1789–19 September 1839), physician and educator, was born presumably in Henry County, Virginia, the son of James Antony, Sr., a military officer, and Ann Tate. At sixteen, he became an apprentice under physician Joel Abbott of Monticello, Georgia. At nineteen he enrolled in the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine but, owing to economic circumstances, had to leave without a diploma. He married Nancy Godwin in 1809. They had eleven children....

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Arthur Dean Bevan. Courtesy of the Clendening History of Medicine Library, University of Kansas Medical Center.

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Bevan, Arthur Dean (09 August 1861–10 June 1943), surgeon and reformer of medical education, was born in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Thomas Bevan, a physician, and Sarah Elizabeth Ramsey. After attending high school in Chicago, Bevan earned his Ph.B. at Yale’s Sheffield Scientific School in 1881. He then entered Rush Medical College in Chicago and obtained his M.D. in 1883. He finished first in the competitive examination for the U.S. Marine Hospital Service....

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Byford, William Heath (20 March 1817–21 May 1890), gynecologist and advocate of medical education for women, was born in Eaton, Ohio, the son of Henry Byford, a mechanic, and Hannah Swain. Henry Byford moved his family to southwestern Indiana shortly after William’s birth and died there nine years later. Young William did odd jobs to help out, but about 1830 Hannah Byford had to move the family to her father’s farm in Crawford County, Illinois. During the next few years William often asked to be allowed to learn a trade to help support the family and improve his own prospects. He finally became apprenticed to a tailor, who moved away two years later. At this time William decided on medicine for his career, although he never mentioned the reason. His reading and studies in chemistry, physiology, and natural history may have steered him in this direction....

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Rice, Joseph Mayer (20 May 1857–24 June 1934), physician, journal editor, and education critic, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Mayer Rice, a private tutor of languages, and Fanny Sohn. Rice’s parents had emigrated from Bavaria in 1855 and had settled in the German community in Philadelphia. Rice attended public schools in Philadelphia until 1870, when the family moved to New York City. He finished his secondary education in the public school system there and then attended the City College of New York. In 1881 Rice received a degree in medicine from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. After practicing in local hospitals for a three-year period, in 1884 Rice established a successful private practice in pediatrics. During this period he became interested in the physical fitness programs offered by the New York City schools....

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Scott, Colin Alexander (11 February 1861–05 April 1925), psychologist and educational reformer, was born in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, the son of the Reverend Robert Scott and Isabel Laird. His father’s work eventually led the family to move to New York City, where in 1876–1877 Scott entered the preparatory program of the College of the City of New York. He went on to Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario, where in 1885 he received the B.A. While an undergraduate, he married Helen McCall of Kingston; they had five children. In his early career he had difficulty choosing between teaching and painting as a profession. He studied at the Ontario Art School from 1885 to 1887 and continued to paint for pleasure throughout his life, exhibiting his work widely in the eastern United States. Though he had excelled in chemistry at Queen’s University, his interest in philosophy and psychology eventually led him to graduate study at Clark University, a new institution with a strong focus on graduate education; he received a Ph.D. in psychology in 1896. Scott taught psychology at the Chicago Normal School from 1897 to 1901; at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, from 1901 to 1902; at Tufts College from 1910 to 1911; and at the Boston Normal School from 1902 to 1910 and from 1911 to 1915. He was professor of education at Mount Holyoke College from 1915 to 1925, and he was also a member of the American Psychology Association....

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William Henry Welch. Courtesy of the Clendening History of Medicine Library, University of Kansas Medical Center.

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Welch, William Henry (08 April 1850–30 April 1934), medical scientist and educator, was born in Norfolk, Connecticut, the second child and first son of William Wickham Welch and Emeline Collin. His mother died when he was six months old, and he was reared by his paternal grandmother. His father, paternal grandfather, and four paternal uncles were physicians, “the Doctors Welch of Norfolk.” His father served repeatedly in the Connecticut legislature and one term (1855–1857), under auspices of the American party, in the U.S. House of Representatives....