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McGillycuddy, Valentine Trant O’Connell (14 February 1849–06 June 1939), physician and Indian agent, was born in Racine, Wisconsin, the son of Irish immigrants Daniel McGillycuddy and Johanna Trant, whose means of earning a living are not known. McGillycuddy attended the University of Michigan in 1866–1867 and received an M.D. in 1869 from the Detroit College of Medicine, where after graduation he served as a lecturer and assistant hospital surgeon until ill health from overwork forced his resignation in 1871. To rebuild his strength, McGillycuddy signed on as a recorder, assistant engineer, and surgeon with the U.S. Survey of the Great Lakes (1871–1874), topographer and surgeon of the British-American Boundary Line Survey (1874), and finally as physician and topographer to Columbia School of Mines Professor Walter P. Jenny’s Black Hills Scientific Expedition (1875). He was the first Caucasian to ascend Harney Peak, the highest point in the Black Hills, where now he is buried. Upon his return to Detroit, McGillycuddy married Fanny E. Hoyt, of Ionia, Michigan, in 1875; this union was childless....

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Sibley, John (19 May 1757–08 April 1837), physician and Indian agent, was born in Sutton, Massachusetts, the son of Timothy Sibley and Anne Waite, possibly farmers. After medical study under Dr. John Wilson, he served as surgeon’s mate with the American forces during the Revolution. At war’s end he entered practice at Great Barrington (Mass.) and in 1780 married Elizabeth Hopkins, with whom he had two children. Ever restless, in 1784 he moved his family to Fayetteville, North Carolina, where he briefly published the Fayetteville ...

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Woodward, Henry (1646?–1686?), medical doctor and Indian agent, was perhaps from England or from Barbados, the origin of many Carolina settlers. His forbears and social background are unknown. The quality of his writing and the fact that he was addressed as “doctor” indicate a fair degree of education. Woodward was a young man when he went to Carolina. He had a talent for manipulating the tricky and multilingual relations that characterized this volatile region. His talent included the capacity to charm others and to deceive them. He became the deputy of the Carolina lords proprietors who, in their royal charter of 1663, held title to territory that overlapped Florida land claimed by the Spanish and inhabited by native groups wary of both sets of Europeans. Woodward accompanied Captain Robert Sandford on a 1666 expedition to explore the proprietors’ new province and to find natives who would ally with them against the Spanish. Woodward stayed with the Guale people in Santa Elena (near Port Royal) in exchange for the cacique’s nephew, whom Sandford took as an envoy to the English. The exchange of men in 1666 involved a formal ceremony of adoption for Woodward, who was given a field of corn as well as the cacique’s niece to attend him. This arrangement was almost certainly a form of marriage, though it is not known if the couple had any children. Woodward was also delegated by Sandford to act as the sole “tenant-at-will” of the Carolina proprietors—the lone English possessor of the province....