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Baird, Henry Carey (10 September 1825–30 December 1912), publisher and economic pamphleteer, was born at the United States Arsenal, Bridesburg, Pennsylvania, the son of Captain Thomas J. Baird, U.S. Army, and Eliza Carey. Educated in private schools until he was sixteen years of age, he then joined the Philadelphia publishing firm founded by his grandfather, Mathew Carey, which was then operated by his uncles. With the dissolution of the family enterprise (1842), he formed his own business—Henry Carey Baird and Company—which pioneered in publishing technical works on industrial and mechanical topics. He also used his publishing house as a vehicle for disseminating his own writings on economic subjects, many of which he distributed without charge....

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Fels, Joseph (16 December 1853–22 February 1914), soap manufacturer, reformer, and single-tax evangelist, was born in Halifax Court House, Virginia, the second son of Lazarus Fels, a peddler, and Susannah Freiberg. His Bavarian Jewish parents had immigrated in 1848, coming from near Kaiserslautern. Settling in Yanceyville, North Carolina, Lazarus Fels took over the general store and in 1861 was appointed Confederate States postmaster. Joseph attended classes in Yanceyville and, with his older sisters, a boarding school in Richmond, Virginia. Bankrupted by the Civil War and a failed try at soapmaking, Lazarus Fels moved the family to Baltimore in 1867. At fifteen Joseph ended schooling to work in his father’s second soap business, which also failed; then briefly, at seventeen, he became a traveling coffee salesman. Within a year he and his father became the Baltimore representatives of Charles Elias and Company, a Philadelphia soap house. In 1873 Lazarus moved northward again, this time to Philadelphia. Two years later, Joseph acquired a partnership in Thomas Worsley and Company, a maker of fancy toilet soaps, installing his father in charge of manufacturing. In 1876 Joseph Fels bought out Worsley after founding Fels and Company of Philadelphia in his own name. Fels and Company prospered in the intensely competitive soap business, by 1890 marketing no fewer than 107 varieties....

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Harvey, Coin (16 August 1851–11 February 1936), economic reformer, lawyer, and real estate investor, was born William Hope Harvey in Buffalo, West Virginia, the son of Robert Trigg Harvey and Anna Maria Hope, farmers. After two years at a local academy, he entered Marshall College in nearby Huntington but remained there only a few months. He then began to study law on his own while supporting himself by teaching school. After being admitted to the West Virginia bar, he practiced law, first in Barboursville (1870–1874), then with his brother in Huntington for two years, then in Cleveland, Ohio. He married Anna R. Halliday in 1876; they had four children. In 1879 they moved to Chicago and two years later to Gallipolis, Ohio, where Harvey served as attorney for several wholesale firms....

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Macune, Charles William (20 May 1851–02 November 1940), agrarian and monetary reformer, was born in Kenosha, Wisconsin, the son of William Macune, a blacksmith and itinerant Methodist preacher, and Mary Almira McAfee. His father died in 1852 as the family trekked to California. Returning to Illinois that year, Macune attended school until the age of ten and then provided for his mother and sisters by farming a small family plot. Leaving home after the Civil War, he ranched and drove cattle in California and Kansas. In 1871 he made frontier Texas his home, and he studied and practiced both law and medicine. He also ran a hotel, which went bankrupt in the panic of 1873, painted houses, and edited local newspapers. In 1876 he married Sally Vickery; they had two sons and three daughters....

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Warbasse, James Peter (22 November 1866–22 February 1957), economic reformer and surgeon, was born in Newton, New Jersey, the son of Joseph Warbasse and Harriet Delphine Northrup. After graduating from Newton Collegiate Institute in 1885, followed by a year studying at home, he entered the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, from which he received an M.D. in 1889. Warbasse completed a two-year internship at Methodist Episcopal Hospital in Brooklyn, did postgraduate study at the Universities of Göttingen and Vienna, and then returned to New York City, where he served in the outpatient departments of the Chambers Street and Roosevelt Hospitals. In 1892 he returned to Methodist Episcopal, starting as assistant attending surgeon and progressing to attending surgeon three years later. Soon after his initial appointment, Warbasse set up a laboratory of surgical pathology and bacteriology at the hospital; it is credited with being the nation’s first such facility. When the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898, Warbasse volunteered. He served in Florida and Cuba, first as a medical officer with the 7th Army Corps and then as surgeon to the 13th Artillery Regiment of New York State. Having seen the cruelties of war at firsthand, he became a pacifist....