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Forbes, Stephen Alfred (29 May 1844–13 March 1930), ecologist, state entomologist of Illinois, and chief of the Illinois Natural History Survey, was born in a log cabin in Silver Creek, Illinois, the son of Isaac Forbes, a farmer, and Agnes Van Hoesen. While enduring economic hardships common to pioneer families on the prairies, the Forbes family suffered further misfortune when Stephen was ten. With his mother already in poor health, Stephen’s father died, forcing older brother Henry to assume responsibility for the farm and the rearing of Stephen and his younger sister, Nettie. Stephen attended the district school until he was fourteen, studied under Henry’s instruction for two years, and briefly attended a college preparatory school until the family ran out of financial resources....

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Morris, John Gottlieb (14 November 1803–10 October 1895), Lutheran pastor, entomologist, and Baltimore cultural leader, was born in York, Pennsylvania, the son of John Samuel Gottlieb Morris, a physician, and Barbara Myers. Raised in a pious middle-class household, Gottlieb, following his father’s death in 1808, lived much of his life in unusually close relationship to his mother and his brother, Charles. After studying at the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University) and graduating from Dickinson College in 1823, he studied theology at Princeton Seminary and at the infant Gettysburg Seminary. He married Eliza Hay in 1827; they had three children....

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Osten Sacken, Carl Robert Romanovich von der (21 August 1828–20 May 1906), entomologist and diplomat, was born in St. Petersburg, Russia; his parents’ names are unknown. A member of the Russian nobility, he received some education in St. Petersburg. His serious interest in insects began at age eleven, when another young nobleman introduced him to the subject while Osten Sacken was visiting Baden Baden with his family. In 1849 he joined the Russian diplomatic corps, and prior to receiving an American posting, Osten Sacken published several papers on insects, one of them an account of the species to be found in the suburbs of St. Petersburg. In 1856 he traveled to Washington, D.C., where he took up his duties as secretary to the Russian legation. During the two-month trip, he stopped to visit some of Europe’s leading entomologists, including ...