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Arthur, Joseph Charles (11 January 1850–30 April 1942), botanist and plant pathologist, was born in Lowville, New York, the son of Charles Arthur and Ann Allen. When Arthur was six, his parents moved first to Stirling, Illinois, then to Charles City, Iowa; and several years later, they finally settled in Spirit Lake, Iowa. Growing up on a farm environment, he attended the country schools of Floyd County, Iowa, and then completed high school at Charles City High School....

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Burrill, Thomas Jonathan (25 April 1839–14 April 1916), plant pathologist, was born in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, the son of British immigrants John Burrill and Mary Francis, farmers. The family moved to Stephenson County, Illinois, when he was nine years old. A shy and somewhat reclusive young boy, he entered the state university at Normal in 1862, where he developed an interest in natural history as a result of close association with such members of the Illinois Natural History Society as the curator of the society, Joseph A. Sewall, who was his botany teacher; the first state entomologist, ...

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Dodge, Bernard Ogilvie (18 April 1872–09 August 1960), plant pathologist, mycologist, and educator, was born in Mauston, Wisconsin, the son of Eldridge Gerry Dodge, and Mary Ann Nourse, farmers. Dodge credited his parents with the early education of their children and for instilling in them a passion for knowledge and music. Because his help was needed to run the family farm, Dodge attended high school on an infrequent basis and graduated in 1892, at the age of twenty. Over the next fourteen years he would alternate between teaching high school and attending the University of Wisconsin, from which he received a bachelor of philosophy degree with the class of 1909....

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Duggar, Benjamin Minge (01 September 1872–10 September 1956), plant pathologist, was born in Gallion, Alabama, the son of Reuben Henry Duggar, a physician, and Margaret Louisa Minge. After two years at the University of Alabama, which he entered at age fourteen, he transferred to the Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College (now Mississippi State College), earning his B.S. with honors in 1891. Duggar then studied at Alabama Polytechnical College, where ...

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Galloway, Beverly Thomas (16 October 1863–13 June 1938), plant pathologist, was born in Millersburg, Missouri, the son of Robert McCauley Galloway, a farmer and miller, and Jane McCray. He became a registered pharmacist, passing the state examination in 1878. Soon, however, he decided to study agricultural science, especially horticulture and botany. He went to the University of Missouri, graduating with his Bachelor of Agricultural Science degree in 1884. He continued his graduate studies after spending parts of 1884 and 1885 exhibiting horticultural materials at the New Orleans Exposition. Galloway studied plant diseases at a time when plant pathology was a very young science. He left Missouri in 1887 to work at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and never finished an advanced degree....

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Harrar, Jacob George (02 December 1906–18 April 1982), plant pathologist, educator, and foundation officer, was born in Painesville, Ohio, the son of Ellwood Scott Harrar, an electrical engineer, and Lucetta E. Sterner, a schoolteacher. Encouraged to develop a wide range of interests in his youth, Harrar became an avid naturalist, developed skill in musical performance, and was active in interscholastic sports, fishing, and hunting. He entered Oberlin College in 1923 at age sixteen and enrolled in the premedical curriculum, completing it in five years. At Oberlin, professor Frederick Glover recognized and promoted Harrar’s interest in botany. After graduation Harrar took a teaching fellowship at Iowa State University, where he received an M.S. in plant pathology in 1929. He was then recruited to head the department of biology in the College of Agriculture at the University of Puerto Rico, where he learned to speak Spanish. In 1930 he married Georgetta Steese, a musician whom he had met at Oberlin; they had two children....

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Jones, Lewis Ralph (05 December 1864–31 March 1945), plant pathologist, was born in Brandon, Wisconsin, the son of Lucy Knapp and David Jones, farmers. After early education at Brandon, he attended Ripon College (a Congregational school). In 1886 he entered the University of Michigan, planning to study medicine, but like another professor, ...

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Kunkel, Louis Otto (07 May 1884–20 March 1960), plant virologist, was born in Audrain County near Mexico, Missouri, the son of Henry Kunkel and Katie Price Spencer, homestead farmers. At age sixteen he left school to harvest wheat in the Midwest before moving on to budding peaches in a nursery, where he gained a lifelong interest in peach trees and their diseases. he returned to high school in 1903 and in 1906 entered the University of Missouri at Columbia; he received his first exposure to botany a year later at a lecture by a visiting Cornell University scientist and well-known mycologist, ...

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Smith, Erwin Frink (21 January 1854–06 April 1927), plant pathologist, was born at Gilberts Mills, New York, the son of Rancellor King Smith, a tanner and shoemaker, and Louisa Frink. In 1870 his father bought eighty acres of land for a farm in Michigan, to which the family moved in March of that year. Because Smith helped with the farm work, he did not graduate from the Ionia, Michigan, high school until 1880. Michigan was then undergoing deforestation, and the flora were interesting and rich. Smith became friends with Charles F. Wheeler, the village druggist and postmaster, and Volney M. Spalding of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. Smith wrote that Wheeler “showed me how to study flowering plants … and was my companion on a thousand delightful rambles” and that Spalding “taught me how to study parasitic fungi and where to find the literature.” In 1881 he and Wheeler published the ...