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Clark, Henry James (22 June 1826–01 July 1873), zoologist and microscopist, was born in Easton, Massachusetts, the son of Henry Porter Clark, a Swedenborgian clergyman, and Abigail Jackson Orton. During his youth, the family moved to Brooklyn, New York, where Clark was educated. After receiving an A.B. in 1848 from New York University, he taught for two years in White Plains, New York. Attracted first to the study of botany, in 1850 he went to Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study with the renowned Harvard botanist ...

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Leidy, Joseph (09 September 1823–30 April 1891), comparative anatomist, paleontologist, and microscopist, was born Joseph Mellick Leidy in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Philip Leidy, a hatter, and Catherine Mellick, who died twenty months later in childbirth. Soon thereafter, Leidy’s father married Christiana Taliana Mellick, Catherine’s first cousin, a determined, intelligent woman who raised Leidy. German was spoken in the Leidy (Leydig) home. As a young boy, Joseph developed an intense interest in plants, animals, and minerals, and he showed an unusual talent for drawing. He was an indifferent student at a private, classical school, spending most of his time following his interest in nature, exploring the creeks and parks of Philadelphia....

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Riddell, John Leonard (20 February 1807–07 October 1865), botanist, microscopist, and geologist, was born in Leyden, Massachusetts, the son of John Riddell and Lephe Gates. Riddell’s father, successively a schoolteacher, constable, and justice of the peace, subsequently moved his family to New York State near the town of Preston. Here Riddell received his early education at a school kept by one of his uncles. He then attended Oxford Academy for four months, served briefly as a schoolmaster, and later enrolled in Rensselaer School in Troy, New York, receiving a B.A. degree in 1829 and an M.A. in 1832. While acquiring his degrees, he supported himself by giving lectures on geology, botany, and chemistry in New York State and Ontario, Canada. His growing reputation as a lecturer led in 1832 to his appointment as professor of chemistry and botany at Ohio Reformed Medical College. Two years later he began lecturing on botany at the Cincinnati Medical College, where in 1836 he was awarded a medical degree. While in Ohio he published a series of papers on botany and geology and wrote ...

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Woodward, Joseph Janvier (30 October 1833–17 August 1884), U.S. Army medical officer, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Joseph Janvier Woodward and Elizabeth Graham Cox. He entered the University of Pennsylvania in 1850 and was granted an M.D. degree in 1853. He then practiced medicine in Philadelphia until 1861. During this early period of his career he also taught surgery at the University of Pennsylvania, gave private lessons in the uses of the microscope in pathology, and published the first of a number of papers on cancer....